Size Exclusion Coupled to Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography for the Characterization of Cranberry Products
- 133 Downloads
A combination of solvent extraction, size exclusion purification, and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV absorption and fluorescence detection was here used for the determination of flavan-3-ols and related oligomeric compounds in cranberry products. The method relied on robust, simple, and inexpensive instrumental equipment present in most of routine analytical laboratories. Sample extracts in methanol/water/hydrochloric acid solution (60:39:1, v/v/v) were subjected to size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using Sephadex LH-20 as the sorbent to separate simple phenolic and oligomeric components. As a novel aspect of this work, the implementation of the SEC process in a reusable packed column was practically and economically highly advantageous. Fractions were analyzed by reversed-phase chromatography using a C18 core-shell analytical column and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and methanol as the components of the mobile phase. Chromatograms were recorded by UV absorption spectroscopy at 280 nm and by fluorescence spectroscopy at λex 280 nm/λem 347 nm. The method was applied to the determination of flavan-3-ols in various cranberry samples. Catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins A2 and B2 were found in different amounts depending on the cranberry varieties.
KeywordsCranberry Flavanols Procyanidin A2 Size-exclusion chromatography Liquid chromatography
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support received from Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under the projects CTQ2014-65324 and CTQ2015-63968-C2-1-P, and from the Agency for Administration of University and Research Grants (Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain) under the projects 2014 SGR-377 and 2014 SGR-539.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Inal Bakhytkyzy declares that he has no conflict of interest. Oscar Nuñez declares that he has no conflict of interest. Javier Saurina declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with humans and animals performed by any of the authors.
- Bakhytkyzy I, Nunez O, Saurina J (2018) Determination of flavanols by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Application to the characterization of cranberry-based pharmaceuticals through profiling and fingerprinting approaches. J Pharm Biomed Anal 156:206–213CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carrasco-Pancorbo A, Gomez-Caravaca AM, Segura-Carretero A, Cerretani L, Bendini A, Fernandez-Gutierrez A (2009) Use of capillary electrophoresis with UV detection to compare the phenolic profiles of extra-virgin olive oils belonging to Spanish and Italian PDOs and their relation to sensorial properties. J Sci Food Agric 89:2144–2155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lerma-Herrera MA, Nunez-Gastelum JA, Ascacio-Valdes J, Aguilar CN, Rodrigo-Garcia J, Diaz-Sanchez AG, Alvarez-Parrilla E, de la Rosa LA (2017) Estimation of the mean degree of polymerization of condensed tannins from the kernel and shell of Carya illinoinensis by HPLC/MS and spectrophotometric methods. Food Anal Meth 10:3023–3031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Navarro M, Nunez O, Saurina J, Hernandez-Cassou S, Puignou L (2014) Characterization of fruit products by capillary zone electrophoresis and liquid chromatography using the compositional profiles of polyphenols: application to authentication of natural extracts. J Agric Food Chem 62:1038–1046CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Dooren I, Foubert K, Theunis M, Naessens T, Pieters L, Apers S (2018) Advantages of a validated UPLC-MS/MS standard addition method for the quantification of A-type dimeric and trimeric proanthocyanidins in cranberry extracts in comparison with well-known quantification methods. J Pharm Biomed Anal 148:32–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Verardo V, Cevoli C, Pasini F, Gomez-Caravaca AM, Marconi E, Fabbri A, Caboni MF (2015) Analysis of oligomer proanthocyanidins in different barley genotypes using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection-mass spectrometry and near-infrared methodologies. J Agric Food Chem 63:4130–4137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar