Advertisement

A Novel and Validated Chemical-Enzymatic Strontium Fractionation Method for Wheat Flour from Celestite Mining Area: the First Approach for Sequential Fractionation

  • Sema Bağdat
  • Mehmet Hikmet Özkan
  • Feyzullah Tokay
  • Şeref Güçer
Article
  • 2 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, a sequential Sr fractionation scheme was developed for wheat flour matrix. The lipid, water-soluble, and starch fractions were separated successfully. Total and fractionated Sr was determined by ICP-MS. The limits of detection and quantification of the technique were 4.4 and 17.7 μg L−1, respectively. The distribution of Sr was varied between 21.2–31.3%, 28.1–51.2%, and 22.9–49.3% in water-soluble, starch, and residue fractions, respectively. The lipid-bounded strontium was only determined for sample 3 as 0.42 mg kg−1. Additionally, water-soluble content was divided into sub-fractions. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was tested with NIST-8436 durum wheat flour. The certified and sum of the fractionated Sr concentrations were in good agreement with a recovery of 105.0% of the stated concentration. Moreover, simulated in vitro digestion methods were also applied to find out the bioaccessible Sr and to investigate the statistical correlation between fractions and gastrointestinal digests.

Keywords

Strontium Fractionation analysis Wheat flour Bioavailability ICP-MS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the office of Scientific Research Projects of Cumhuriyet University for financial support. The authors also thank Bursa Test and Analysis Laboratory (BUTAL) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) for instrument and technical assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Sema Bağdat declares that she has no conflict of interest. Mehmet Hikmet Özkan declares that he has no conflict of interest. Feyzullah Tokay declares that he has no conflict of interest. Şeref Güçer declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

References

  1. Araujo RGO, Dias FS, Macedo SM, Santos WNL, Ferreira SLC (2007) Method development for the determination of manganese in wheat flour by slurry sampling flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem 101:397–400.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Araujo RGO, Oleszczuk N, Rampazzo RT, Costa PA, Silva MM, Vale MGR, Welz B, Ferreira SLC (2008) Comparison of direct solid sampling and slurry sampling for the determination of cadmium in wheat flour by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 77:400–406.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.06.047 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bağdat Yaşar S, Baran EK, Tokay F (2013) Element fractionation analysis for milk in its real matrix by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Spectrosc Lett 46:100–108.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00387010.2012.692426 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bağdat S, Baran EK, Tokay F (2014) Element fractionation analysis for infant formula and food additives by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Int J Food Sci Tech 49:392–398.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12312 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bittencourt LM, Lana DAPD, Pimenta AMC, Santos AV, Gonçalves APF, Augusti R, Costa LM (2014) Determination of metal associated with proteins of wheat seed samples after sequential extraction procedure. J Brazil Cheml Soc 25:264–270.  https://doi.org/10.5935/0103-5053.20130292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonafaccia G, Gambelli L, Fabjan N, Kreft I (2003) Trace elements in flour and bran from common and tartary buckwheat. Food Chem 83:1–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00228-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borght AVD, Goesaert H, Veraverbeke WS, Delcour JA (2005) Fractionation of wheat and wheat flour into starch and gluten: overview of the main processes and the factors involved. J Cereal Sci 41:221–237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2004.09.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caprita R, Caprita A (2013) Methodology for extraction of soluble non-starch polysaccharides and viscosity determination of aqueous extracts from wheat and barley. In: Kim HK, Ao SI, Rieger BB (eds) IAENG transactions on engineering technologies. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Czaja T, Mazurek S, Szostak R (2016) Quantification of gluten in wheat flour by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Food Chem 211:560–563.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.108 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dorsey AF, Fransen ME, Diamond GL, Amata RJ (2004) Toxicological profile for strontium, agency for toxic substances and disease Registry. AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  11. Erdemir US, Gucer S (2016a) Characterization of copper bioavailability in wheat flour by chemical fractionation and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. Anal Lett 49:1056–1065.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2015.1065878 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erdemir US, Gucer S (2016b) Assessment of in vitro bioaccessibility of manganese in wheat flour by ICP-MS and on-line coupled with HPLC. J Cereal Sci 69:199–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gimou MM, Charrondiere UR, Leblanc JC, Pouillot R, Noel L, Guerin T (2014) Concentration data for 25 elements in foodstuffs in Yaounde: the Cameroonian Total Diet Study. J Food Compos Anal 34:39–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2014.02.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Goesaert H, Brijs K, Veraverbeke WS, Courtin CM, Gebruers K, Delcour JA (2005) Wheat flour constituents: how they impact bread quality, and how to impact their functionality. Trends Food Sci Tech 16:12–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2004.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gonzalez-Thuillier I, Salt L, Chope G, Penson S, Skeggs P, Tosi P, Powers SJ, Ward JL, Wilde P, Shewry PR, Haslam RP (2015) Distribution of lipids in the grain of wheat (cv. Hereward) determined by lipidomic analysis of milling and pearling fractions. J Agric Food Chem 63:10705–10716.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b05289 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Iskander FY, Morad MM, Klein DE, Bauer TL (1987) Determination of protein and 11 elements in six milling fractions of two wheat varieties. Cereal Chem 64:285–287Google Scholar
  17. Khajeh M (2009) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction procedure for zinc and copper determination in food samples by Box-Behnken design. J Food Compos Anal 22:343–346.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2008.11.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Koplik R, Borkova M, Bicanova B, Polak J, Mestek O, Kominkova J (2006) Speciation analysis of elements in cereal flours by liquid chromatography–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food Chem 99:158–167.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Laparra JM, Velez D, Montoro R, Barbera R, Farre R (2003) Estimation of arsenic bioaccessibility in edible seaweed by an in vitro digestion method. J Agric Food Chem 51:6080–6085.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf034537i CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Marie PJ (2005) Strontium as therapy for osteoporosis. Curr Opin Pharmacol 5:633–636.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2005.05.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Martins CA, Cerveira C, Scheffler GL, Pozebon D (2015) Metal determination in tea, wheat, and wheat flour using diluted nitric acid, high-efficiency nebulizer, and axially viewed ICP OES. Food Anal Method 8:1652–1660.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12161-014-0044-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Orecchio S, Amorello D, Raso M, Barreca S, Lino C, Di Gaudio F (2014) Determination of trace elements in gluten-free food for celiac people by ICP-MS. Microchem J 116:163–172.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2014.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peruchi LC, Nunes LC, Carvalho GGA, Guerra MBB, Almeida E, Rufini IA, Santos D Jr, Krug FJ (2014) Determination of inorganic nutrients in wheat flour by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Spectrochim Acta B 100:129–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sab.2014.08.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pors Nielsen S (2004) The biological role of strontium. Bone 35:583–588.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2004.04.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Santos LMG, Araujo RGO, Welz B, Jacob SC, Vale MGR, Becker-Ross H (2009) Simultaneous determination of Cd and Fe in grain products using direct solid sampling and high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 78:577–583.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2008.12.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Shewry PR, Hey SJ (2015) The contribution of wheat to human diet and health. Food Energy Secur 4:178–202.  https://doi.org/10.1002/fes3.64 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Tang J, Zou C, He Z, Shi R, Ortiz-Monasterio I, Qu Y, Zhang Y (2008) Mineral element distributions in milling fractions of Chinese wheats. J Cereal Sci 45:821–828.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2008.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Templeton DM, Ariese F, Cornelis R, Danielsson L, Muntau H, Leeuwen HPV, Lobinski R (2000) Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciation and fractionation of elements. Definitions, structural aspects, and methodological approaches. Pure Appl Chem 72:1453–1470.  https://doi.org/10.1351/pac200072081453 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vignola MB, Moiraghi M, Salvucci E, Baroni V, Perez GT (2016) Whole meal and white flour from argentine wheat genotypes: mineral and arabinoxylan differences. J Cereal Sci 71:217–223.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2016.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Welna M, Klimpel M, Zyrnicki W (2008) Investigation of major and trace elements and their distributions between lipid and non-lipid fractions in Brazil nuts by inductively coupled plasma atomic optical spectrometry. Food Chem 111:1012–1015.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yacoubi N, Immerseel FV, Ducatelle R, Rhayat L, Bonnin E, Saulnier L (2016) Water-soluble fractions obtained by enzymatic treatment of wheat grains promote short chain fatty acids production by broiler cecal microbiota. Anim Feed Sci Technol 218:110–119.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.05.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhao H, Guo B, Wei Y, Zhang B (2013) Multi-element composition of wheat grain and provenance soil and their potentialities as fingerprints of geographical origin. J Cereal Sci 57:391–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2013.01.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sema Bağdat
    • 1
  • Mehmet Hikmet Özkan
    • 2
  • Feyzullah Tokay
    • 1
  • Şeref Güçer
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and ArtsBalıkesir UniversityBalıkesirTurkey
  2. 2.Republic of Turkey Ministry of Tradeİstanbul Custom LaboratoryİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and ArtsUludag UniversityBursaTurkey

Personalised recommendations