Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 23–31 | Cite as

A Fast and Simple Method for Determination of Vitamin E in Infant Formula by Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Combined with HPLC-UV

  • Fatemeh Sadrykia
  • Ali Shayanfar
  • Hadi Valizadeh
  • Mahboob Nemati


Developing a simple and fast method for quantification of vitamins in complex matrixes is one of the important issues in quality control of foods such as milk. In this study, after introducing a new method for quantification of vitamin E in infant formula, its content was compared to the label claims. In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) procedure with acetonitrile and chloroform as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively, was used for isolation and clean-up of vitamin E from infant formula samples without the need for saponification. Then, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) composed of a C18 column as stationary phase and the mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and water (91:8:1%) as mobile phase using a standard addition method was employed for quantification of vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) with UV detection at 296 nm. After method validation under the optimum conditions, the method provided a linear range with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.99 and acceptable accuracy and precision. Results showed that the developed method is an appropriate method for quality control of infant formulas. The advantage of DLLME compared with saponification process and liquid-liquid extraction is the decrease of organic solvent consumption and proposing of a simple and fast method for analysis of vitamin E in infant formula. Application of the developed method for analysis of vitamin E in infant formulas on the market showed there was a considerable difference between labeled and obtained content in most of the samples.


Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction HPLC Infant formula Vitamin E Intake Labeled content 


Funding Information

This study was funded by the Vice Chancellor for Research of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran, for a partial financial support, and it is a part of F. Sardikia’s M.S. thesis (No. 10) registered at Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Fatemeh Sadrykia declares that she has no conflict of interest. Ali Shayanfar declares that he has no conflict of interest. Hadi Valizadeh declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mahboob Nemati declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fatemeh Sadrykia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ali Shayanfar
    • 3
  • Hadi Valizadeh
    • 4
  • Mahboob Nemati
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Food and Drug Safety Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.Pharmaceutical Analysis Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Drug Applied Research CenterTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  5. 5.Halal Research Center of IRIFDATehranIran
  6. 6.Faculty of PharmacyTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran

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