Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 1163–1179 | Cite as

Application of Central Composite Design for the Optimization of Reverse-Phase HPLC/DAD Separation of the cis- and trans- Isomers of Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids

  • Fatma Nur Arslan
  • Hacer Azak


The study deals with the optimization of reverse-phase HPLC separation of cis-/trans- isomers of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids by the assessment of the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were also applied for the analysis of fatty acids in functional cold-pressed oils. The data obtained from experimental applications of CCD was used to model the parameters that significantly affect separations. The independent variables chosen were flow rate (X 1 ), column temperature (X 2 ), and acetonitrile content in mobile phase (X 3 ). A second-order polynomial model was used to estimate the impact of variables on separation efficiencies of the C30 and C18 stationary phases. The proposed CCD models were also validated with the ANOVA. The predicted values were in good agreement with experimental data, advising expert application of CCD as an option to obtain maximum information for the modeling of reverse-phase HPLC separation with little number of experiments. The optimal values of method parameters for the efficient C18 and C30 column separations as part of the k′ response value were found to be flow rate of 1.10 and 0.42 mL min−1, temperature of 3.6 and 9.4 °C, and acetonitrile content in mobile phase of 100 and 77.4%, respectively. ANOVA test results also illustrate that the CCD models can be successfully used to predict the optimum method parameters. To maximize both sensitivity and precision of the methods, the validation procedure was also performed and the higher correlation coefficients (r = 0.9149–0.9993) were determined for all fatty acid methyl esters. Thus, the proposed experimental designs were shown to offer considerable advantages over traditional method optimization approaches.


Unsaturated fatty acids Central composite design Optimization Reverse-phase HPLC 



The present study was supported by Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University (Karaman, Turkey) Scientific Research Project Centre with 14-M-16 project number.

Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Conflict of Interest

Fatma Nur Arslan declares that she has no conflict of interest. Hacer Azak declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary Figure 1 (DOCX 1.05 mb)
12161_2017_1073_MOESM2_ESM.docx (971 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2 (DOCX 970 kb)
12161_2017_1073_MOESM3_ESM.docx (34 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 (DOCX 34 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Karamanoglu MehmetbeyKaramanTurkey

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