Metabolomic Strategies Based on High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry as a Tool for Recognition of GMO (MON 89788 Variety) and Non-GMO Soybean: a Critical Assessment of Two Complementary Methods
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This study was focused on distinguishing of genetically modified organism (Monsanto 89788 variety) and conventional soybeans by employing high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) techniques for non-target screening of sample extracts. Two hyphenated instrumental platforms represented by (i) ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (U-HPLC) coupled to quadrupole/time of flight and (ii) ambient mass spectrometry with direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source-coupled OrbitrapMS were used. The statistical processing of generated data (metabolomic fingerprints) was performed by multivariate data analysis; principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that both employed techniques enabled correct classification of genetically modified and conventional soybeans. In addition, some phosphatidylcholines and sugars were identified as the most significant markers.
KeywordsSoybean Genetically modified organism Metabolomics High-resolution mass spectrometry Fingerprinting
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This work was supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (NAZV-QI101B267), Operational Programme Prague—Competitiveness (CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21537 and CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24503) and by the ‘National Program of Sustainability I’—NPU I (LO1601—No. MSMT-43760/2015). Josep Rubert thanks the Generalitat Valenciana (Conselleria d’Educació, Cultura i Esport) for the VALi + d postdoctoral fellowship ‘Contractació de personal investigador en formació en fase postdoctoral 2014’ (APOSTD/2014/120).
Conflict of Interest
Vojtech Hrbek declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Veronika Krtkova declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Josep Rubert declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Hana Chmelarova declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Katerina Demnerova declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Jaroslava Ovesna declares that he/she has no conflict of interest. Jana Hajslova declares that he/she has no conflict of interest.
Compliance with Ethical Requirements
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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