Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 10, pp 3434–3442 | Cite as

SPE-UHPLC-DAD Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Three Flavonoids in Grape Juice by Using Bis(tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine)-Modified Silica as Sorbent

  • Kai Hu
  • Zhifen Deng
  • Sui Li
  • Mingxia Wu
  • Wei Liu
  • Shusheng Zhang


In this study, bis(tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine) modified silica gel was successfully prepared and used as an efficient sorbent for solid-phase extraction. Coupled with ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), the extraction performance of the sorbent was evaluated by using three flavonoids as model analytes. Main parameters, which affecting extraction efficiency were carefully optimized. The results showed that multiple intermolecular interactions were involved in the sample pretreatment procedure, including π–π, hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method was applied for the analysis of three flavonoids in grape juice. Satisfactory linear ranges for flavonoids were obtained in the range of 5–200 ng mL−1 for quercetin, 1–200 ng mL−1 for luteolin, and 2–200 ng mL−1 for kaempferol, with good correlation coefficients (>0.9996). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.5–2 ng mL−1, and the LOQs were between 1 and 5 ng mL−1. The recovery values of spiked grape juice ranged from 97 to 106% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.7% (n = 3). This method exhibited the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and low solvent consumption, and was promising for the separation and determination of flavonoids in grape juice and other matrixes.


Bis(tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine)-modified silica gel SPE purification UHPLC Flavonoids Grape juice 



The authors acknowledge the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21605042, 21275133), Doctoral Research Fund of Henan University of Chinese medicine (BSJJ2014-09), and Provincial Universities Basic Scientific Research Fund of Henan University of Chinese medicine (2014KYYWF-QN05).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of Interest

Kai Hu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Zhifen Deng declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sui Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mingxia Wu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Wei Liu declares that he has no conflict of interest. Shusheng Zhang declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.

Supplementary material

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Table S1 (DOCX 15 kb)
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Table S2 (DOCX 14 kb)
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Table S3 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Analytical and Testing CentreHenan University of Chinese MedicineZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.College of Chemistry and Molecular EngineeringZhengzhou UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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