Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 6, pp 1870–1880 | Cite as

Treatment Optimisation and Sample Preparation for the Evaluation of Lipid Oxidation in Various Meats Through TBARs Assays before Analysis

  • Lisa Grotta
  • Federica Castellani
  • Fiorentina Palazzo
  • M. Naceur Haouet
  • Giuseppe MartinoEmail author


The aim of this work was to evaluate the critical points while using a TBARs test to measure the lipid oxidation in meat samples; this method includes a distillation method, extracting acid solutions (7% trichloroacetic acid—TCA, 4% perchloric acid—HClO4 and 4 N hydrochloric acid—HCl), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentrations and their interactions. The TBARs test method has been evaluated in different animal meat species and in different kinds of meat: fresh, stored, frozen and at different times of defrosting. Moreover, the influence of sample management was evaluated. The best results were obtained after using a distillation and a cold extraction with 7% TCA. The presence of the antioxidant agent (BHT) was essential and was more important in frozen samples than in fresh meat and especially when it was added at negligible concentrations immediately before defrosting, within 2 min of sample withdrawal from the freezer. The general management of the sample requires careful attention, avoiding storage and/or freezing, and lean meat appears to be more susceptible than fatty meat to the oxidative process.

Practical Applications: Optimized TBARs test, including sample management, may represent a line guide to its application such that the results of future studies can be comparable and successfully employed.


Distillation Acid extraction Malondialdehyde Lipid oxidation TBARs 



Butylated hydroxyanisole


Butylated hydroxytoluene


Propyl gallate


Polyunsaturated fatty acids


Reactive oxygen species


Thiobarbituric acid





This work is part of the project “Miglioramento delle carni bovine, suine e avicole attraverso l’utilizzo di sottoprodotti della filiera enologica per fini mangimistici - VINCARN” supported by grant from Rural Development Plan 2007 – 2013 – MISURA 1.2.4 - Regione Abruzzo – Italy. Project manager Prof Giuseppe Martino. The authors are grateful to “Soalca” Srl - Località Cerrani, 13/B - 66010 Pretoro (CH)- Italy for the kind cooperation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Lisa Grotta declares that she has no conflict of interests. Federica Castellani declares that she has no conflict of interests. Fiorentina Palazzo declares that she has no conflict of interests. M. Naceur Haouet declares that he has no conflict of interests. Giuseppe Martino declares that he has no conflict of interests.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lisa Grotta
    • 1
  • Federica Castellani
    • 1
  • Fiorentina Palazzo
    • 1
  • M. Naceur Haouet
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Martino
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Faculty of BioSciences and Technologies for Agriculture Food and EnvironmentUniversity of TeramoTeramoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Food SafetyIstituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Umbria e delle MarchePerugiaItaly

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