Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 764–772 | Cite as

Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe Method Followed by Ionic Liquid-Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Trace Amount of Bisphenol A in Canned Foods

  • Mohammad Faraji
  • Mahsa Noorani
  • Banafshe Nasiri Sahneh


Combination of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method with ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (QuEChERS-IL-DLLME) was developed as an extraction methodology to determine bisphenol A (BPA) in various canned food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The potential variables affecting the microextraction recovery were considered in the optimization process. Obtained results showed that 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6mim][Tf2N]) is a better extraction solvent compared with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C6mim][PF6]) and is more compatible with RP-HPLC. Under the optimum conditions, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500 μL−1 with a determination coefficient (R 2) of 0.9993. Enrichment factor for BPA was 98, and limit of detection was 0.1 μg L−1. The relative standard deviation percent (RSD%) for the intra-day and inter-day extraction and determination at 2.0, 20, and 200 μg L−1 levels of BPA was less than 7.2 % (n = 6) and 9.7 % (n = 6), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction, cleanup, preconcentration, and determination of the BPA in different canned food samples, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ≥90 %).


Bisphenol A QuEChERS method Ionic liquid-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Canned foods High-performance liquid chromatography 



This study was funded by Standard Research Institute of Iran (grant number 45565).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Mohammad Faraji declares that he has no conflict of interest. Mahsa Noorani declares that she has no conflict of interest. Banafshe Nasiri Sahneh declares that she has no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies on human or animal subjects.

Informed Consent

Not applicable.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Faraji
    • 1
  • Mahsa Noorani
    • 2
  • Banafshe Nasiri Sahneh
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Food Industry and Agriculture, Department of Food Science and TechnologyStandard Research Institute (SRI)KarajIran
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science and innovative technologyIslamic Azad University of Pharmaceutical SciencesTehranIran

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