Application of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography for Carotenoid Analysis in Red Mamey (Pouteria sapote) Fruit
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One-dimensional liquid chromatography is widely applied to the analytical separation of various phytochemicals, including carotenoids; however, sometimes it does not provide sufficient resolution power for the analyte separation in very complex real-world samples. Multidimensional chromatography is a technique that may provide the required analytical separation power to tackle such a task. The aim of this work was to apply comprehensive multidimensional two-dimensional liquid chromatography, coupled to photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detection, to the free carotenoid separation in red mamey (Pouteria sapote) fruit for the first time, using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography conditions in the second dimension separation. A comparison between one- and two-dimensional separation of the same matrix is shown, and a total of 23 different carotenoids belonging to 17 different carotenoid chemical classes were separated in the double orthogonal separation and identification system; moreover, a hypothesis for the possible detection of a new carotenoid is also reported for the first time.
KeywordsCarotenoids Red mamey fruit Multidimensional chromatography LC×UHPLC-PDA-APCI/MS
We gratefully thank Shimadzu and Sigma-Aldrich/Supelco Corporations for their continuous support.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Francesco Cacciola declares that he has no conflict of interest. Daniele Giuffrida declares that he has no conflict of interest. Margita Utczas declares that she has no conflict of interest. Domenica Mangraviti declares that she has no conflict of interest. Paola Dugo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Dania Menchaca declares that she has no conflict of interest. Enrique Murillo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Luigi Mondello declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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