The Potential of Raman Spectroscopy for the Classification of Fish Fillets
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Since fishery products represent an important and globally growing food resource, there is also an increased incidence rate of intentional mislabelling of fish products and restaurant frauds globally. In the present study, Raman spectroscopy, as a fast and non-invasive technique, was applied using a laser at a wavelength of 532 nm for the classification of deep frozen fish fillets. Without any preparation, muscle tissue of 12 fish types was analysed with a Raman device, and according to a hierarchical cluster analysis of their spectra, three groups were identified: (1) the carotenoid group, fish from salmonid family; (2) the freshwater group, fish that was reared in fresh or brackish water; and (3) the saltwater group, fish reared in saltwater. Thus, it is demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy can be used as a direct, non-expensive and fast screening method before proceeding with standard methods for the identification of fish fillets.
KeywordsRaman spectroscopy Fish Meat Environment Carotenoids
We thank Stephan Stöckel for critical reading of the manuscript.
This study was supported by the FP7 Project AREA (Project number: 316004). Ralf Heinke, Petra Rösch and Jürgen Popp thank the EU, the Thüringer Kultusministerium, the Thüringer Aufbaubank, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany (BMBF), the German Science Foundation (DFG) and the Carl-Zeiss Foundation for financial supports.
Conflict of Interest
Božidar Rašković declares that he has no conflict of interest. Ralf Heinke declares that he has no conflict of interest. Petra Rösch declares that she has no conflict of interest. Jürgen Popp declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All applicable international, national and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
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