Ultrasound-Assisted Aromatisation with Condiments as an Enabling Technique for Olive Oil Flavouring and Shelf Life Enhancement
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- Assami, K., Chemat, S., Meklati, B.Y. et al. Food Anal. Methods (2016) 9: 982. doi:10.1007/s12161-015-0273-9
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Olive oil flavour represents the most important factor that influences customer’s perception for quality. In this study, an innovative aromatisation approach that enhanced quality and shelf life of olive oil is tested by means of in situ ultrasound-assisted extraction of Carum carvi L. seeds in olive oil. After the flavouring process, carvone and limonene, representing 99 % of caraway essential oil, were identified in virgin olive oil as revealed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer (HS-SPME gas chromatograph (GC)/mass spectrometer (MS)) analyses. Furthermore, kinetic studies indicate that flavouring rate in ultrasound-assisted system is faster than conventional aromatisation producing very stable aromatised oil with no changes in quality. This fact is attributed to ultrasound contribution to mass transfer intensification of essential oil components from seeds to the bulk medium, confirmed by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) micrographs in which cell damage and exudation of its main content are illustrated. However, it is important to note that ultrasound-treated samples produce higher degrees of conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes compared to conventional maceration. Nevertheless, this increase is not alarming and remains within permitted values of the European Community and the International Olive Oil Council (IOOC). Ultrasound-flavouring system stands as a fast alternative aromatisation method, which allows on top shelf life enhancement and olive oil quality preservation.