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Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 712–723 | Cite as

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil and Cheap Vegetable Oils: Distinction and Detection of Adulteration as Determined by GC and Chemometrics

  • Hazem Jabeur
  • Akram Zribi
  • Mohamed Bouaziz
Article

Abstract

Refined oils including corn, sunflower, soybean, and palm oils as well as low-quality olive oil such as refined lampante and pomace olive oils are commonly used for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) adulteration. Indeed, K 270 could be used as a parameter for the detection of EVOO fraud for each type of the studied refined oils, 10 % olive, 4 % pomace olive, 10 % palm, 5 % corn, and 2 % soybean oils. Moreover, the adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans fatty acid contents with 10 % pomace olive, 3 % soybean, 3 % sunflower, 2 % corn, and 10 % palm oils. Actually, stigmasta-3,5-diene content is one of the most effective means of detecting refined oils in EVOO at low levels: 2 % olive, 0.4 % pomace olive, 1 % palm, 0.2 % soybean, 0.5 % sunflower, and 0.1 % corn oils. Finally, the application of linear discriminant analysis could represent an alternative and innovative tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of EVOO adulteration.

Keywords

Extra-virgin olive oil adulteration Refined oils Trans fatty acids Stigmasta-3,5-diene Linear discriminant analysis 

Abbreviations

EVOO

Extra-virgin olive oil

ROO

Refined olive oil

RPOO

Refined pomace olive oil

RSbO

Refined soybean oil

RSfO

Refined sunflower oil

RPmO

Refined palm oil

RCoO

Refined corn oil

TFAs

Trans fatty acids

GC

Gas chromatography

GC-MS

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

IOOC

International Olive Oil Council

LDA

Linear discriminant analysis

PV

Peroxide value

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique and the Ministère de l’Agriculture (ONH Laboratory-Sfax), Tunisia, to this research work.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest. Hazem Jabeur declares no conflict of interest. Akram Zribi declares no conflict of interest. Prof. Mohamed Bouaziz declares no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire d’Électrochimie et Environnement, École Nationale d’Ingénieurs de SfaxUniversité de SfaxSfaxTunisia
  2. 2.Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie de SfaxUniversité de SfaxSfaxTunisia

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