Elemental determination was carried out on 36 grape juice samples (19 organic and 17 ordinary), with the goal of identifying significant differences between the two types of juice for classification purposes. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used for the determination of 24 elements, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Se, Sn, Ti, V, and Zn. Ba, Ce, La, Mg, P, Pb, Rb, Sn, and Ti concentrations were found to be higher in organic versus ordinary samples, while Na and Va concentrations were higher in ordinary versus organic samples. The remaining investigated elements exhibited statistically equivalent concentration levels in both types of samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) statistical techniques of the elemental fingerprints were readily able to discriminate organic from ordinary samples and can be used as alternative methods for adulteration evaluation.
Chemometrics ICP-MS Multi-element fingerprinting Organic food Quality control Grape juice
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The authors acknowledge financial support and the fellowship from Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP: 12/03465-1). Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq 150098/2014-6) and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). DAV acknowledges general research support by the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach-Stiftung.
Compliance with Ethics Requirements
The paper describes the first application of ICP-MS to the discrimination of organic and regular grape juices based on the concentration levels of 24 chemical elements (both macro and microelements). Statistical analysis was performed by PCA and SIMCA, which provided a robust approach for evaluation of authenticity of organic grape juice samples. The approach presented here can be used to evaluate the organic juice authenticity.
This described research paper is original, has not been published before and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. All authors have agreed to the submission to Food Analytical Methods.
Conflict of Interest
The described research was performed with financial support from some foundations (fellowships + research grant), as indicated in the Acknowledgments. The authors also indicate that there are no conflicts of interest with respect to this publication.
Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals
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