Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 114–121 | Cite as

Electrochemical Sensor based on Imprinted Sol-Gel Polymer on Au NPs-MWCNTs-CS Modified Electrode for the Determination of Acrylamide

  • Xia LiuEmail author
  • Lu-Gang Mao
  • Yuan-Liang Wang
  • Xing-Bo Shi
  • Yan Liu
  • Yang Yang
  • Zao He


A sensitive molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully constructed for the detection of acrylamide (AM). It is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a composites prepared from gold nanoparticles, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and chitosan along with a sol-gel-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film. The latter was prepared using AM as the template molecule, 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane as the functional monomer, and tetraethoxysilane as the cross-linker. The MIP sensor showed a linear current response to the target AM concentration in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg mL−1 at a working voltage of 0–0.4 V with a lower detection limit of 0.028 μg mL−1 (S/N = 3). It was successfully applied to the detection of AM in potato chips. HPLC analysis was also conducted to detect AM in the same samples to demonstrate the applicability of the electrochemical MIP sensor.


Electrochemical sensor Acrylamide Gold nanoparticles Chitosan Multiwalled carbon nanotubes Sol-gel molecularly imprinted 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31201375), Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JJ3077), and Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest (No. 201303084).

Compliance with Ethics Requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Conflict of Interest

Xia Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Lu-Gang Mao declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yuan-Liang Wang declares that he has no conflict of interest. Xing-Bo Shi declares that he has no conflict of interest. Yan Liu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Yang Yang declares that she has no conflict of interest. Zao He declares that she has no conflict of interest.


  1. Backe WJ, Yingling V, Johnson T (2014) The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection-hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1334:72–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bagdonaite K, Derler K, Murkovic M, Agric J (2008) Determination of Acrylamide during Roasting of Coffee. Food Chem 56:6081–6086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blanch GP, Morales FJ, Moreno FP, Castillo MLR (2013) A new approach based on off-line coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine acrylamide in coffee brew. J Sep Sci 36:320–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. David AG, Dwight SS, Weston LD, Matthew DM, Pinal CP, Chad AM (2010) Gold nanoparticles for biology and medicine. Angew Chem Int Ed 49:3280–3294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gong X (2013) Controlling surface properties of polyelectrolyte multilayers by assembly pH. Phys Chem Chem Phys 15:10459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gong X (2014) Facile formation of nanoparticle patterns by water induced flow of a polymer thin film. Res Adv 4:54494Google Scholar
  7. Grabar KC, Smith PC, Musick MD, Davis JA, Walter DG, Jackson MA, Guthrie AP, Natan MJ (1996) Kinetic Control of Interparticle Spacing in Au Colloid-Based Surfaces: Rational Nanometer-Scale Architecture. J Am Chem Soc 118:1148–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hu YF, Zhang ZH, Zhang HB, Luo LJ, Yao SZ (2011) Electrochemical determination of L-phenylalanine at polyniline modified carbon electrode based on β-cyclodextrin incorporated carbon nanotube composite material and imprinted sol-gel film. Talanta 84:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huang JD, Zhang XM, Lin Q, He XR, Xing XR, Huai HX, Lian WJ, Zhu H (2011) Electrochemical sensor based on imprinted sol-gel and nanomaterials for sensitive determination of bisphenol A. Food Control 22:786–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) Information Note No. 2. Acrylamide in food is a potential health hazard. Geneva, Switzerland, 1st March, 2005,
  11. Marx S, Zaltsman A, Turyan I, Mandler D (2004) Preparation sensor based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel films. Anal Chem 76:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mottram DS, Wedzicha BL, Dodson AT (2002) Food chemistry: acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419:448–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Prasad BB, Madhuri R, Tiwari MP, Sharma PS (2010) Electrochemical sensor for folic acid based on a hyperbranched molecularly imprinted polymer-immobilized sol-gel-modified pencil graphite electrode. Sens Actuators B 146:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Qin X, Wang HC, Wang XS, Miao ZY, Chen LL, Zhao W (2010) Amperometric biosensors based on gold nanoparticles-decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes-poly biocomposite for the determination of choline. Sens Actuators B 147:593–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rezaei B, Boroujeni MK, Ensafi AA (2014) Caffeine electrochemical sensor using imprinted film as recognition element based on polypyrrole sol-gel and gold nanoparticles hybrod nanocomposite modified pencil graphite electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 60:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Riskin M, Tel-Vered R, Bourenko T, Granot E, Willner I (2008) Imprinting of molecular recognition sites through electropolymerization of functionalized Au nanoparticles: development of an electrochemical TNT Sensor Based on π-Donor − Acceptor Interactions. J Am Chem Soc 130:9726–9733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Saha K, Agasti S, Kim C, Li XN, Rotello VM (2012) Gold nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing. Chem Rev 112:2739–2779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Soares C, Cunha C, Fernandes J (2006) Determination of acrylamide in coffee and coffee products by GC-MS using an improved SPE clean-up. Food Addit Contam 23:1276–1282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stadler RH, Blank I, Varga N, Robert F (2002) Food chemistry: acrylamide from Maillard reaction products. Nature 419:449–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Suginta W, Khunkaewla P, Schulte A (2013) Electrochemical biosensor applications of polysaccharides chitin and chitosan. Chem Rev 113:5458–5479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang ZH, Li JS, Liu XL, Yang JM, Lu XQ (2013) Preparation of an amperometric sensor for norfloxacin based on molecularly imprinted grafting photopolymerization. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:2525–2533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang X, Piro B, Reisberg S, Anquetin G, Rocquigny HD, Jiang P, Wang Q, Wu W, Pham MC, Dong CZ (2014a) Direct, reagentless electrochemical detection of the BIR3 domain of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein using a peptide-based conducting polymer sensor. Biosens Bioelectron 61:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wang QY, Ji J, Jiang DL, Wang Y, Zhang YZ, Sun XL (2014b) An electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted membranes on a P-ATP–AuNP modified electrode for the determination of acrylamide. Anal Methods 6:6452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. WTO (1993) Guidelines for drinking water quality [R]. WHO: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  25. Xu HF, Dai H, Chen GN (2010) Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin protein entrapped in grahene and chirosan composite film. Talanta 81:334–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xu W, Liu P, Guo GH, Dong C, Zhang XH, Wang SF (2013) Electrochemical sensor based on a carbon nanotube-modified imprinted sol-gel for selective and sensitive determination of β2-agonists. Microchim Acta 180:1005–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Xu GL, Zhang HL, Zhong M, Zhang TT, Lu XJ, Kan XW (2014) Imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor for melamine direct recognition and detection. J Electroanal Chem 713:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yang YK, Fang GZ, Liu GY, Pan MF, Wang XM, Kong LJ, He XL, Wang S (2013) Electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer film via sol-gel technology and multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan functional layer for sensitive determination of quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid. Biosens Bioelectron 47:475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Yuan Y, Zhao GH, Hu XX, Wu JH, Liu J, Chen F (2008) High correlation of methylglyoxal with acrylamide formation in glucose/asparagine Maillard reaction model. Eur Food Res Technol 226:1301–1307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang ZH, Hu YF, Zhang HB, Luo LJ, Yao SZ (2010) Layer-by-layer assembly sensitive electrochemical sensor for selectively probing L-histidine based on molecular imprinting sol-gel at functionalized indium tin oxide electrode. Biosens Bioelectron 26:696–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Zhang J, Niu YH, Li SJ, Luo RQ, Wang CY (2014) A molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor based on sol-gel techenogology and multiwalled carbon nanotubes-Nafion functional layer for determination of 2-nonylphenol in environmental samples. Sens Actuators B 193:844–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhu AH, Xu GL, Li L, Yang LL, Zhou H, Kan XW (2013) Sol-gel imprinted polymers based electrochemical sensor for paracetamol recognition and detection. Anal Lett 46:7Google Scholar
  33. Zhu Y, Zeng GM, Zhang Y, Tang L, Chen J, Cheng M (2014) Highly sensitive electrochemical sensor using a MWCNTs/Au NPs-modified electrode for lead(II) detection based on Pb2+-induced G-rich DNA conformation. Analyst 139:5014–5020CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xia Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lu-Gang Mao
    • 1
  • Yuan-Liang Wang
    • 1
  • Xing-Bo Shi
    • 1
  • Yan Liu
    • 1
  • Yang Yang
    • 1
  • Zao He
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Food Science and TechnologyHunan Agricultural University, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Food Science and BiotechnologyChangshaPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations