Analysis of Micronutrients and Heavy Metals in Portuguese Infant Milk Powders by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (WDXRF)
- 520 Downloads
Concentrations of trace mineral nutrients such as Cu, Fe, and Zn have been analyzed by WDXRF in eight different infant milk powders, representing the majority of the milk powder brands commercialized in Portuguese pharmacies. Results suggest that the concentrations of some of elements analyzed are not consistent with the values labeled by manufacturers. However, all fall inside the concentration ranges defined by the Portuguese and European legislations, except for Al. The presence of aluminum was detected in all analyzed formulations in an average concentration of 8.25 to 19.75 mg Kg−1. This study also reveals the feasibility of WDXRF for the quantitative analysis of trace mineral nutrients in milk powder samples. Moreover, the approach described herein, using the WDXRF technique in helium mode, presents a new methodological advantage over similar published studies. This technique may represent an option for quality control of milk powder formulations, particularly at their production site.
KeywordsInfant milk powders Mineral nutrients Heavy metals WDXRF
The authors wish to thank Egas Moniz Cooperativa de Ensino Superior, CRL, for the financial support.
Conflict of Interest
Tânia A. P. Fernandes declares that she has no conflict of interest. José A. Brito declares that he has no conflict of interest. Luísa L. Gonçalves declares that she has no conflict of interest. This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
- Bruker (2004) Introduction to X-ray fluorescence analysis. Manual Bruker AXS GmbH, Karlsruhe, GermanyGoogle Scholar
- European Commission (2006) Commission Directive 2006/141/EC on infant formulae and follow-on formulae—Official Journal of the European Union, 401/1-401/33Google Scholar
- International conference on harmonization of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use (ICH) (2005) Validation of analytical procedures: Text and Methodology Q2(R1, 1-13Google Scholar
- Nordberg GF, Fowler BA, Nordberg M (2007) Handbook on the toxicology of metals, 3rd ed. Academic Press, Maryland, USAGoogle Scholar
- Perring L, Blanc J (2008b) Validation of quick measurement of mineral nutrients in milk powders: comparison of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and potentiometry reference methods. Sens & Instrumen Food Qual 2(4):254–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Grieken RE, Markowicz AA (2002) Handbook of X-Ray spectrometry; methods and techniques, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2007) Sixty-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives—evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants, WHO Technical Report Series (947)Google Scholar
- World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008) CAC/RCP 66-2008—Code of Hygienic Practice Powdered Formulae for Infants and Young Children, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1-29Google Scholar