Introducing a specific clean extraction procedure with a minimal matrices effect for food colorant determination is still a challengeable topic and highly recommended. Mixed hemimicelle solid-phase extraction method, based on cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-coated Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles as a novel, simple, and fast preconcentration method, was applied for preconcentration and fast isolation of three synthetic food colorants in foodstuff matrices prior to HPLC-UV-vis determination. The influence of different parameters on extraction efficiency such as surfactant amount, sample pH, time of extraction, desorption condition, and nanoparticles concentration was optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved by extracting 10 mL sample. The limit of detection for the three synthetic food colorants including Tartrazine, Sunset yellow FCF, and Quinoline yellow is 2.50, 1.25, and 2.12 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was applicable for extraction and preconcentration of three food colorants in various food samples with the food dye contents in the range of 13–105 μg/L.
Food colorant Mixed hemimicelles Solid-phase extraction Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles HPLC
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The support by the Research Council of University of Tehran, along with Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services through a Grant to conduct this study is gratefully acknowledged.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. The article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects and the authors do not have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. The financial support came from the Research Council of the University of Tehran, which does not have commercial interest.