Carbon-ceramic electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes–ionic liquid (MWCNTs–IL) nanocomposite was constructed. This electrode was used for electrochemical determination of food dyes Sunset Yellow (SY) and tartrazine (Tz). The modified electrode based on high surface area and high ionic conductivity of nanocomposite exhibited electrocatalytic effect for oxidation of SY and Tz; also, oxidation peak potentials of SY and Tz effectively separated on modified electrode, and their simultaneous determination was possible. Operational parameters, such as the amount of MWCNTs in suspension, IL volume, solution pH, and scan rate, which affect the analytical performance of determination, were optimized. The present electrode behaved linearly to Sunset Yellow and tartrazine in the concentration range of 4 × 10−7 to 1.1 × 10−4 M and 3 × 10−6 to 0.7 × 10−4 M with a detection limit of 10−7 M (0.045 mg L−1) and 1.1 × 10−6 M (0.59 mg L−1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully utilized for simultaneous determination of SY and Tz in different food samples, and the obtained results were in good agreement to those obtained by HPLC method.