Food Analytical Methods

, Volume 6, Issue 3, pp 761–766 | Cite as

Novel Binary Solvents-Dispersive Liquid—Liquid Microextraction (BS-DLLME) Method for Determination of Patulin in Apple Juice Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

  • Mehdi Maham
  • Rouhollah Karami-Osboo
  • Vahid Kiarostami
  • Syed Waqif-Husain


A simple and rapid binary solvents-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (BS-DLLME) method has been developed for determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method involves the use of an appropriate mixture of miscible binary extraction solvents and disperser solvent to form fine droplets of extractant in a sample solution. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as the type and volume of high-density extraction solvent, the volume of ethyl acetate, the kind and volume of disperser solvent, and salt addition were investigated and optimized. The detection and quantification limits were 2.0 and 10.0 μg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation for five measurements of 25 μg L−1 of PAT was 3.8 %. The relative recoveries of PAT from apple juice samples at spiking levels of 25, 50, and 75 ng mL−1 were in the range of 91.3–95.2 %.


Binary solvents-dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction Patulin Ethyl acetate Apple juice HPLC 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Maham
    • 1
  • Rouhollah Karami-Osboo
    • 2
  • Vahid Kiarostami
    • 3
  • Syed Waqif-Husain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Student Research CommitteeShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Chemistry Department, North Tehran BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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