Elemental Content and Total Antioxidant Activity of Salvia fruticosa
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The determination of 18 elements (V, Cr, Cu, Co, Se, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ba, Bi, Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Mn, Fe, Mg and Zn) in leaves, flowers and the infusion from Salvia fruticosa, a sage grown in Greece, is described. For this purpose, flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been used for the determination of Fe, Mg, Zn and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry has been used for the determination of V, Cr, Cu, Co, Se, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ba, Bi, Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Mn using 45Sc 72Ge, 115In and 232Th as internal standards. The elemental content was found to be in the range of 0.01 (Bi)-30.8 (Mn) mg/Kg (leaves), 0.30 (Bi)-39.1 (Mn) mg/Kg (flowers), 0.003 (Sb)-20.4 (Mn) mg/Kg (infusion) for V, Cr, Cu, Co, Se, Sr, Sn, Sb, Ba, Bi, Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Mn and in the range of 0.07 (Zn)-3.21 (Mg) g/kg (leaves) for Fe, Mg and Zn. The majority of the samples were collected from six sites in the island Crete and transplanted and grown in a model farm. Chemometric techniques were used to investigate the original site classification according to their elemental content, and it was proved that the initial cultivation sites were characterized by only five elements (Sb, V, Zn, Cd and Cr). The application of factor analysis revealed significant correlation between certain elements, denoting their common sources. In addition, the total antioxidant activity of the herbal preparation was determined by measuring the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was used to extract total antioxidants and the effect of temperature, time and solvent in the extraction efficiency was investigated. The determination of the antioxidant activity was based on the % inhibition of the absorbance signal of the radical DPPH at 515 nm, after the addition of herbal’s extract. The IC50 values were found to be in the range of 10.6–40.1 mg/L.
KeywordsSage (Salvia fruticosa) Herbs Metal Contents Elemental Correlations ICP-MS FAAS Microwave-Assisted Extraction DPPH Radical-Scavenging Method Antioxidant Activity Index
The authors thank Dr. C.D. Economakis from Subtropical Plants and Olive Tree’s Institute in Chania, Crete, Greece, for providing the S. fruticosa samples, P.V. Nisianakis (MSc) from the Military Center of Biological Researches in Penteli, Athens for providing the ICP-MS instrumentation and the Special Research Account of the University of Athens for financial support.
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