The Impact of Interventions that Integrate Accelerometers on Physical Activity and Weight Loss: A Systematic Review
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Regular physical activity is important for improving and maintaining health, but sedentary behavior is difficult to change. Providing objective, real-time feedback on physical activity with wearable motion-sensing technologies (activity monitors) may be a promising, scalable strategy to increase physical activity or decrease weight.
We synthesized the literature on the use of wearable activity monitors for improving physical activity and weight-related outcomes and evaluated moderating factors that may have an impact on effectiveness.
We searched five databases from January 2000 to January 2015 for peer-reviewed, English-language randomized controlled trials among adults. Random-effects models were used to produce standardized mean differences (SMDs) for physical activity outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for weight outcomes. Heterogeneity was measured with I 2.
Fourteen trials (2972 total participants) met eligibility criteria; accelerometers were used in all trials. Twelve trials examined accelerometer interventions for increasing physical activity. A small significant effect was found for increasing physical activity (SMD 0.26; 95 % CI 0.04 to 0.49; I 2 = 64.7 %). Intervention duration was the only moderator found to significantly explain high heterogeneity for physical activity. Eleven trials examined the effects of accelerometer interventions on weight. Pooled estimates showed a small significant effect for weight loss (MD −1.65 kg; 95 % CI −3.03 to −0.28; I 2 = 81 %), and no moderators were significant.
Accelerometers demonstrated small positive effects on physical activity and weight loss. The small sample sizes with moderate to high heterogeneity in the current studies limit the conclusions that may be drawn. Future studies should focus on how best to integrate accelerometers with other strategies to increase physical activity and weight loss.
KeywordsAccelerometers Weight loss Physical activity
The authors would like to thank Liz Wing, MA, for assistance with manuscript preparation. Ms. Wing is an employee of the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, and received no compensation for her work apart from her usual salary. Avishek Nagi, MS, for research assistance; and Megan Von Isenburg, MSLS, for help with the literature search and retrieval.
Authors’ Statement of Conflict of Interest and Adherence to Ethical Standards
This report is based on research conducted by the Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Center located at the Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. The findings and conclusions in this document are those of the author(s) who are responsible for its contents; the findings and conclusions do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government. Therefore, no statement in this article should be construed as an official position of the Department of Veterans Affairs.
No investigators have any affiliations or financial involvement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties) that conflict with the material presented in the report.
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