Which Behaviour Change Techniques Are Most Effective at Increasing Older Adults’ Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour? A Systematic Review
- 5.1k Downloads
Increasing self-efficacy is an effective mechanism for increasing physical activity, especially for older people.
The aim of this review was to identify behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that increase self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour in non-clinical community-dwelling adults 60 years or over.
A systematic search identified 24 eligible studies reporting change in self-efficacy for physical activity following an intervention. Moderator analyses examined whether the inclusion of specific BCTs (as defined by CALO-RE taxonomy) was associated with changes in self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour.
Overall, interventions increased self-efficacy (d = 0.37) and physical activity (d = 0.14). Self-regulatory techniques such as setting behavioural goals, prompting self-monitoring of behaviour, planning for relapses, providing normative information and providing feedback on performance were associated with lower levels of both self-efficacy and physical activity.
Many commonly used self-regulation intervention techniques that are effective for younger adults may not be effective for older adults.
KeywordsSelf-efficacy Physical activity Systematic review Older adults Behaviour change techniques Meta-analysis
- 1.US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans: Be active, healthy and happy. US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington; 2008Google Scholar
- 2.UK Department of Health, start active, stay active. A report on physical activity for health from our four home countries' chief medical officer. UK Department of Health London; 2011Google Scholar
- 6.NHS information centre for health and social care health survey for England – 2008: Physical activity and fitness. Leeds; 2009Google Scholar
- 8.Bandura A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman; 1997.Google Scholar
- 16.Olander EK, Fletcher H, Williams S, Atkinson L, Turner A, French DP. What are the most effective techniques in changing obese individuals' physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013; 10: 29.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Schwarzer R. Statistics software for meta-analysis. Available at: http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/health/meta_e.htm. Accessibility verified May 2, 2013
- 22.Hunter J, Schmidt FL. Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (second edition). Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA; 2004.Google Scholar
- 25.Buman MP, Giacobbi PR, Dzierzewski JM, et al. Peer volunteers improve long-term maintenance of physical activity with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. J Phys Act Health. 2001; 8: S257-266.Google Scholar
- 31.King AC, Pruitt LA, Phillips W, Oka R, Rodenburg A, Haskell WL. Comparative effects of two physical activity programs on measured and perceived physical functioning and other health-related quality of life outcomes in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000; 55: 74-83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Li F, McAuley E, Harmer P, Duncan TE, Chaumeton NR. Tai Chi enhances self-efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2001; 9: 161-171.Google Scholar
- 64.Dombrowski SU, Sniehotta FF, Avenell A, Johnston M, MacLennan G, Araujo-Soares V. Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with obesity-related co-morbidities or additional risk factors for co-morbidities: A systematic review. Health Psychol Rev. 2012; 6: 7-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 68.De Luca CR, Leventer RJ. Developmental trajectories of executive functions across the lifespan. In Anderson, Peter; Anderson, Vicki; Jacobs, Rani. Executive functions and the frontal lobes: A lifespan perspective. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. 2008:3–21Google Scholar
- 75.Hagger M, Chatzisarantis NLD, Biddle SJH. A meta-analytic review of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in physical activity: Predictive validity and the contribution of additional variables. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2002; 24: 3-32.Google Scholar