Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 180–204 | Cite as

A Review and Meta-Analysis of Affective Judgments and Physical Activity in Adult Populations

Original Article

Abstract

Background

Popular theories of health behavior have often been criticized for neglecting an affective component to behavioral engagement.

Purpose

This study reviewed affective judgment (AJ) constructs employed in physical activity research to assess the relationship with behavior. Studies were eligible if they included: (a) a measure of physical activity; (b) a distinct measure of AJ (e.g., affective attitude, enjoyment, intrinsic motivation); and (c) involved participants with a mean age of 18 years or older.

Methods

Literature searches were concluded in September, 2009 among five key search engines. This search yielded a total of 10,631 potentially relevant records; of these, 102 passed the eligibility criteria. Random effects meta-analysis procedures with correction for sampling and measurement bias were employed in the analysis.

Results

Articles were published between 1989 and 2009, with sample sizes ranging from 15 to 6,739. Of the studies included, 82 were correlational and 20 were experimental, yielding 114 independent samples. The majority of the correlational samples reported a significant positive correlation between AJ and physical activity (83 out of 85), with a summary r of 0.42 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.46) that was invariant across the measures employed, study quality, population sampled and cultural variables. Experimental studies demonstrated that persuasive, information-based, and self-regulatory interventions failed to change AJ; by contrast, environmental and experiential interventions showed promise in their capability to influence AJ.

Conclusions

The results point to a medium-effect size relationship between AJ and physical activity. Interventions that change AJ are scarce despite their potential for changing physical activity. Future experimental work designed to evaluate the causal impact of AJ on physical activity is required.

Keywords

Affective attitude Exercise PACES Enjoyment Pleasure 

Supplementary material

12160_2009_9147_MOESM1_ESM.doc (42 kb)
Appendix AStudies of affective expectancies and physical activity, excluded studies (k = 61) (DOC 41 kb)
12160_2009_9147_MOESM2_ESM.doc (28 kb)
Appendix BSearch syntax (DOC 28 kb)
12160_2009_9147_MOESM3_ESM.doc (183 kb)
Appendix CData extraction, studies of affective expectations and physical activity (DOC 183 kb)
12160_2009_9147_MOESM4_ESM.doc (184 kb)
Appendix DQuality of correlational and experimental studies (DOC 184 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Warburton DER, Katzmarzyk P, Rhodes RE, Shephard RJ. Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2007; 32: S16–S68.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T. The consensus statement. In: Bouchard C, Shephard RJ, Stephens T, eds. Physical activity fitness and health: International proceedings and consensus statement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1994: 9–76.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute. 2002 Physical Activity Monitor. 2002 [cited 2004 August]; Available from: http://www.cflri.ca/cflri/pa/surveys/2002survey/2002survey.html.
  4. 4.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Prevalence of physical activity, including lifestyle activities among adults—United States, 2000–2001. Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2003; 15: 764–769.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baranowski T, Anderson C, Carmack C. Mediating variable framework in physical activity interventions: How are we doing? How might we do better? Am J Prev Med. 1998; 15: 266–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prochaska JO, Velicer WF. The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. Am J Health Promot. 1997; 12: 38–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bandura A. Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychol Health. 1998; 13: 623–649.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ajzen I. The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 1991; 50: 179–211.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Stokols D. Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion. Am J Health Promot. 1996; 10: 282–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lewis BA, Marcus B, Pate RR, Dunn AL. Psychosocial mediators of physical activity behavior among adults and children. Am J Prev Med. 2002; 23(2S): 26–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Symons Downs D, Hausenblas HA. Exercise behavior and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior: A meta-analytic update. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2005; 2: 76–97.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hillsdon M, Foster C, Naidoo B, Crombie H. The effectiveness of public health interventions for increasing physical activity among adults: a review of reviews. UK: Health Development Agency; 2004.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rhodes RE, Pfaeffli LA. Mediators of behaviour change among adult non-clinical populations: A review update. Annals Behav Med. 2009; 37: s85.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duncan M, Spence JC, Mummery WK. Perceived environment and physical activity: A meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2005 [cited 2; Available from: http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/2/1/11.
  15. 15.
    Blanchard CM, Fortier MS, Sweet SN, et al. Explaining physical activity levels from a self-efficacy perspective: The physical activity counselling trial. Annals Behav Med. 2007; 34: 323–328.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lowe R, Eves F, Carroll D. The influence of affective and instrumental beliefs on exercise intentions and behavior: A longitudinal analysis. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2002; 32: 1241–1252.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kimiecik JC, Harris AT. What is enjoyment? A conceptual/definitional analysis with implications for sport and exercise psychology. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1996; 18: 247–263.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kendzierski D, DeCarlo KJ. Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1991; 13: 50–64.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kiviniemi MT, Voss-Humke AM, Seifert AL. How do I feel about the behavior? The interplay of affective associations with behaviors and cognitive beliefs as influences on physical activity behavior. Health Psychology: Official Journal Of The Division Of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. 2007; 26(2): 152–158.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice. 1982; 19: 276–288.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenstock IM. Historical origins of the health belief model. Health Educ Monogr. 1974; 2: 1–9.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    French DP, Sutton S, Hennings SJ, et al. The importance of affective beliefs and attitudes in the theory of planned behavior: Predicting intention to increase physical activity. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2005; 35: 1824–1848.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lawton R, Conner M, McEachan R. Desire or reason: Predicting health behaviors from affective and cognitive attitudes. Health Psychol. 2009; 28: 56–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rhodes RE, Courneya KS. Investigating multiple components of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control: An examination of the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain. Br J Soc Psychol. 2003; 42: 129–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kraft P, Rise J, Sutton S. Perceived difficulty in the theory of planned behaviour: Perceived behavioural control or affective attitude? Br J Soc Psychol/Br Psychol Soc. 2005; 44(Pt 3): 479–496.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Deci EL, Ryan RM. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum; 1985.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hagger M, Chatzisarantis NLD, eds. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Exercise and Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vuchinich RE, Tucker JA. Behavioral theories of choice as a framework for studying drinking behavior. J Abnorm Psychol. 1983; 92: 408–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Epstein LH, Roemmich JN. Reducing sedentary behaviour: Role in modifying physical activity. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2001; 29: 103–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wankel LM. The importance of enjoyment to adherence and psychological benefits from physical activity. Int J Sport Psychol. 1993; 24: 151–169.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Manstead ASR, Parker D. Evaluating and extending the theory of planned behaviour. Eur Rev Soc Psychol. 1995; 6: 69–95.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Van der Pligt J, Zeelenberg M, VanDijk WW, de Vries NK, Richard R. Affect, attitudes and decisions: Let’s be more specific. Eur J Soc Psychol. 1998; 8: 33–66.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zanna MP, Rempel JK. Attitudes: A new look at an old concept. In: Bar-Tal D, Kruglanski AW, eds. The social psychology of knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ekkekakis P. Affect circumplex redux: The discussion on its utility as a measurement framework in exercise psychology continues. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008; 1: 139–159.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bandura A. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev. 1977; 84: 191–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hall PA, Fong GT. Temporal self-regulation theory: A model for individual health behavior. Health Psychology Review. 2007; 1: 6–52.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rhodes RE, Conner M. Comparison of behavioral belief structures in the physical activity domain. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2009 in press.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM, Matheson DH. A multi-component model of the theory of planned behavior. Br J Health Psychol. 2006; 11: 119–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman A, Sallis JF, Brown W. Correlates of adult's participation in physical activity: Review and update. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34: 1996–2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Public Health Agency of Canada (2008) The Healthy Living Unit: The Benefits of Physical Activity.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rhodes RE, Macdonald H, McKay HA. Predicting physical activity intention and behaviour among children in a longitudinal sample. Soc Sci Med. 2006; 62: 3146–3156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Vol. Version 5.0.1. 2008, The Cochrane Collaboration.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998; 52: 377–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grade Working Group. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. Br Med J. 2004; 328: 1490.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hedges LV, Vevea JL. Fixed- and random-effects models in meta-analysis. Psychol Methods. 1998; 3(4): 486–504.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cohen J, Cohen P. Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1983.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 2003; 327(7414): 557–560.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Biostat, Comprehensive Meta-analysis-2. 2006: Englewood, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nigg CR, Lippke S, Maddock JE. Factorial invariance of the theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity across gender, age, and ethnic groups. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2009; 10(2): 219–225.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    McArthur LH, Raedeke TD. Race and sex differences in college student physical activity correlates. Am J Health Behav. 2009; 33(1): 80–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McIntyre CA, Rhodes RE. Correlates of leisure-time physical activity during transitions to motherhood. Women Health. 2009; 49(1): 66–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bellows-Riecken KH, Rhodes RE, Hoffert KM. Motives for lifestyle and exercise activities: A comparison using the theory of planned behaviour. European Journal of Sport Science. 2008; 8(5): 305–313.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Blanchard CM, Fisher J, Sparling P, et al. Understanding physical activity behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An application of the theory of planned behavior. J Am Coll Health. 2008; 56: 341–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blanchard CM, Fisher J, Sparling P, Nehl E, Rhodes RE, Courneya KS, Baker F, Rupp J. Ethnicity and the theory of planned behavior in an exercise context: A mediation and moderation perspective in college students. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9: 527–545.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Calitri R, Lowe R, Eves FF, Bennett P. Associations Between Visual Attention, Implicit and Explicit Attitude and Behaviour for Physical Activity. Routledge; 2008: 1–19.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cerin E, Vandelanotte C, Leslie E, Merom D. Recreational facilities and leisure-time physical activity: An analysis of moderators and self-efficacy as a mediator. Health Psychology: Official Journal Of The Division Of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association. 2008; 27(2 Suppl): S126–S135.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Craike MJ. Application of self-determination theory to a study of the determinants of regular participation in leisure-time physical activity. World Leisure. 2008: 58–69.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ingledew DK, Markland D. The role of motives in exercise participation. Psychol Health. 2008; 23(7): 807–828.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Milne HM, Wallman KE, Guilfoyle A, Gordon SE, Courneya KS. Self-determination theory and physical activity among breast cancer survivors. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2008; 30: 23–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Peddle CJ, Plotnikoff RC, Wild TC, Au HJ, Courneya KS. Medical, demographic, and psychosocial correlates of exercise in colorectal cancer survivors: an application of self-determination theory. Supportive Care In Cancer: Official Journal Of The Multinational Association Of Supportive Care In Cancer. 2008; 16(1): 9–17.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM. Do sedentary motives adversely affect physical activity? Adding cross-behavioural cognitions to the theory of planned behaviour. Psychol Health. 2008; 23: 789–805.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM, Blacklock RE. Do physical activity beliefs differ by age and gender? J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2008; 30: 412–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rhodes RE, et al. Evaluating timeframe expectancies in physical activity social cognition: Are short- and long-term motives different? Behav Med. 2008; 34(3): 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rhodes RE, Plotnikoff RC, Courneya KS. Predicting the physical activity intention-behaviour profiles of adopters and maintainers using three social cognition models. Annals Behav Med. 2008; 36: 244–252.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rogers LQ, Courneya KS, Robbins KT, et al. Physical activity correlates and barriers in head and neck cancer patients. Supportive Care In Cancer: Official Journal Of The Multinational Association Of Supportive Care In Cancer. 2008; 16(1): 19–27.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rogers LQ, McAuley LQ, Courneya KS, Verhulst SJ. Correlates of physical activity self-efficacy among breast cancer survivors. Am J Health Behav. 2008; 32(6): 594–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ball K, Timperio A, Salmon J, Giles-Corti B, Roberts R, Crawford D. Personal, social and environmental determinants of educational inequalities in walking: A multilevel study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007; 61(2): 108–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blanchard CM, Kupperman J, Sparling P, et al. Ethnicity as a moderator of the theory of planned behavior and physical activity in college students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2007; 78: 531–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Conner M, Rodgers W, Murray T. Conscientiousness and the intention–behavior relationship: Predicting exercise behavior. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007; 29(4): 518–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gretebeck KA, Black DR, Blue CL, Glickman LT, Huston S, Gretebeck RJ. Physical activity and function in older adults: Theory of planned behavior. Am J Health Behav. 2007; 31(2): 203–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jones LW, Guill B, Keir ST, et al. Using the theory of planned behavior to understand the determinants of exercise intention in patients diagnosed with primary brain cancer. Psycho-Oncology. 2007; 16(3): 232–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Karvinen KH, Courneya KS, Campbell KL, et al. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. The International Journal Of Behavioral Nutrition And Physical Activity. 2007; 4: 21–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McDonough MH, Crocker PRE. Testing self-determined motivation as a mediator of the relationship between psychological needs and affective and behavioral outcomes. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2007; 29(5): 645–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Raedeke TD. The relationship between enjoyment and affective responses to exercise. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2007; 19(1): 105–115.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM, Matheson DH. Motivational antecedent beliefs of endurance, strength, and flexibility activities. Psychol Health Med. 2007; 12: 148–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rhodes RE, et al. Prediction of leisure-time walking: An integration of social cognitive, perceived environmental, and personality factors. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2007; 4: 51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Scott EJ, Eves FF, French DP, Hopp R. The theory of planned behaviour predicts self-reports of walking, but does not predict step count. Br J Health Psychol. 2007; 12(4): 601–620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Temple VA. Barriers, enjoyment, and preference for physical activity among adults with intellectual disability. International Journal Of Rehabilitation Research. Internationale Zeitschrift Für Rehabilitationsforschung. Revue Internationale De Recherches De Réadaptation. 2007; 30(4): 281–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bopp M, Wilcox S, Laken M, et al. Factors associated with physical activity among African-American men and women. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30(4): 340–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Brown SG, Rhodes RE. Relationships among dog ownership and leisure time walking amid Western Canadian adults. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 131–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Courneya KS, Conner M, Rhodes RE. Effects of different measurement scales on the variability and predictive validity of the “two-component” model of the theory of planned behavior in the exercise domain. Psychol Health. 2006; 21: 557–570.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Daley AJ, Duda JL. Self-determination, stage of readiness to change for exercise, and frequency of physical activity in young people. European Journal of Sport Science. 2006; 6(4): 231–243.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Edmunds J, Ntoumanis N, Duda JL. A test of self-determination theory in the exercise domain. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2006; 36(9): 2240–2265.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hunt-Shanks TT, Blanchard CM, Baker F, et al. Exercise use as complementary therapy among breast and prostate cancer survivors receiving active treatment: Examination of exercise intention. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2006; 5(2): 109–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jones LW, Courneya KS, Vallance JK, et al. Understanding the determinants of exercise intentions in multiple myeloma cancer survivors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Cancer Nurs. 2006; 29(3): 167–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Motl RW, Snook EM, McAuley E, Scott JA, Douglass ML. Correlates of physical activity among individuals with multiple sclerosis. Annals Behav Med. 2006; 32(2): 154–161.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    McNeill LH, Wyrwich KW, Brownson RC, Clark EM, Kreuter MW. Individual, social environmental, and physical environmental influences on physical activity among black and white adults: A structural equation analysis. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication Of The Society Of Behavioral Medicine. 2006; 31(1): 36–44.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM. Conceptual categories or operational constructs? Evaluating higher order theory of planned behavior structures in the exercise domain. Behav Med. 2006; 31: 141–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM, Matheson DH, Coble J. Disentangling motivation, intention, and planning in the physical activity domain. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2006; 7: 15–27.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Courneya KS, Vallance JKH, Jones LW, Reiman T. Correlates of exercise intentions in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors: An application of the theory of planned behavior. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2005; 27(3): 335.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hagger M, Chatzisarantis NLD. First- and higher-order models of attitudes, normative influence, and perceived behavioural control in the theory of planned behaviour. Br J Soc Psychol. 2005; 44: 513–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rhodes RE, Courneya KS, Jones LW. The theory of planned behavior and lower-order personality traits: Interaction effects in the exercise domain. Pers Individ Differ. 2005; 38(2): 251–265.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rogers LQ, Shah P, Dunnington G, et al. Social cognitive theory and physical activity during breast cancer treatment. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2005; 32(4): 807–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sorensen L. Correlates of physical activity among middle-aged Finnish male police officers. Occup Med (Oxford, England). 2005; 55(2): 136–138.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tsai EH-L. A cross-cultural study of the influence of perceived positive outcomes on participation in regular active recreation: Hong Kong and Australian University students. Leis Sci. 2005; 27(5): 385–404.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Payne N, Jones F, Harris PR. The role of perceived need within the theory of planned behaviour: A comparison of exercise and healthy eating. Br J Health Psychol. 2004; 9(4): 489–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wilson PM, Rodgers WM, Fraser SN, Murray TC. Relationships between exercise regulations and motivational consequences in university students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2004; 75(1): 81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Eves F, Hoppe R, McLaren L. Prediction of specific types of physical activity using the theory of planned behavior. J Appl Biobehav Res. 2003; 8(2): 77–95.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rhodes RE, Courneya KS. Modelling the theory of planned behaviour and past behaviour. Psychol Health Med. 2003; 8: 57–69.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salmon J, Owen N, Crawford D, Bauman A, Sallis JF. Physical activity and sedentary behavior: A population-based study of barriers, enjoyment, and preference. Health Psychol. 2003; 22: 178–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rovniak LS, Anderson ES, Winett RA, Stephen RS. Social cognitive determinants of physical activity in young adults: A prospective structural equation analysis. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication Of The Society Of Behavioral Medicine. 2002; 24(2): 149–156.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Booth ML, Owen N, Bauman A, Clavisi O, Leslie E. Social-cognitive and perceived environment influences associated with physical activity in older Australians. Prev Med. 2000; 31(1): 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Johnson NA, Heller RF. Prediction of patient nonadherence with home-based exercise for cardiac rehabilitation: The role of perceived barriers and perceived benefits. Prev Med. 1998; 27(1): 56–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ryan RM, Frederick CM, Lepes D, Rubio N, Sheldon KM. Intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence./Motivation intrinseque et adhesion a l'exercice physique. Int J Sport Psychol. 1997; 28(4): 335–354.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Frederick CM, Morrison C, Manning T. Motivation to participate, exercise affect, and outcome behaviors toward physical activity. Percept Mot Skills. 1996; 82(2): 691–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ajzen I, Driver BL. Prediction of leisure participation from behavioral, normative, and control beliefs: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Leis Sci. 1991; 13: 185–204.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sallis JF, Hovell MF, Hofstetter CR, et al. A multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community sample. Prev Med. 1989; 18(1): 20–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lustyk MKB, Wildman L, Paschane AAE, Oldon KC. Physical activity and quality of life: Assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives. Behav Med (Washington, D.C.). 2004; 30(3): 124–131.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wilson PM, Rodgers WM, Fraser SN. Examining the psychometric properties of the behavioral regulation in exercise questionnaire. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2002; 6(1): 1–21.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Frederick CM, Ryan RM. Differences in motivation for sport and exercise and their relations with participation and mental health. J Sport Behav. 1993; 16(3): 124–146.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oman R, McAuley E. Intrinsic motivation and exercise behavior. J Health Educ. 1993; 24(4): 232–238.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stevinson C, Tonkin K, Capstick V, et al. A population-based study of the determinants of physical activity in ovarian cancer survivors. Journal Of Physical Activity & Health. 2009; 6(3): 339–346.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Karvinen KH, Courneya KS, Plotnikoff RC, Spence JC, Venner PM, North S. A prospective study of the determinants of exercise in bladder cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Supportive Care In Cancer: Official Journal Of The Multinational Association Of Supportive Care In Cancer. 2009; 17(2): 171–179.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gardner RE, Hausenblas HA. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: A prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior. Women Health. 2005; 42(4): 37–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Brown SA. Measuring perceived benefits and perceived barriers for physical activity. Am J Health Behav. 2005; 29(2): 107–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sørensen M. Motivation for physical activity of psychiatric patients when physical activity was offered as part of treatment. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2006; 16(6): 391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Segar M, Spruijt-Metz D, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Go figure? Body-shape motives are associated with decreased physical activity participation among midlife women. Sex Roles. 2006; 54(3): 175–187.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Standage M, Sebire SJ, Loney T. Does exercise motivation predict engagement in objectively assessed bouts of moderate-intensity exercise?: A self-determination theory perspective. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2008; 30(4): 337–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hoyt AL, Rhodes RE, Hausenblas HA, Giacobbi PR. Integrating five-factor model facet-level traits with the theory of planned behavior and exercise. Psychology of Sport & Exercise. 2009; 10(5): 565–572.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Dyrlund AK, Wininger SR. The effects of music preference and exercise intensity on psychological variables. J Music Ther. 2008; 45(2): 114–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kliman A, Rhodes RE. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada’s Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living. Psychol Health Med. 2008; 13: 415–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Milne HM, Wallman KE, Gordon S, Courneya KS. Impact of a combined resistance and aerobic exercise program on motivational variables in breast cancer survivors: A randomized trial. Annals Behav Med. 2008; 36: 158–166.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Parrott MW, Tennant LK, Olejnik S, Poudevigne MS. Theory of planned behavior: Implications for an email-based physical activity intervention. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2008; 9: 511–526.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Vallance JK, Courneya KS, Plotnikoff RC, Mackey JR. Analyzing theoretical mechanisms of physical activity behavior change in breast cancer survivors: Results from the activity promotion (ACTION) trial. Annals Of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication Of The Society Of Behavioral Medicine. 2008; 35(2): 150–158.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hu L, Motl RW, McAuley E, Konopack JF. Effects of self-efficacy on physical activity enjoyment in college-aged women. Int J Behav Med. 2007; 14: 92–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Plante TG, Gores C, Brecht C, Carrow J, Imbs A, Willemsen E. Does exercise environment enhance the psychological benefits of exercise for women? Int J Stress Manag. 2007; 14: 88–98.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Martin Ginis KA, Jung ME, Brawley LR, et al. The effects of physical activity enjoyment on sedentary older adults' physical activity attitudes and intentions. J Appl Biobehav Res. 2006; 11(1): 29–43.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Plante TG, Cage C, Clements S, Stover A. Psychological benefits of exercise paired with virtual reality: Outdoor exercise energizes whereas indoor virtual exercise relaxes. Int J Stress Manag. 2006; 13(1): 108–117.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Rovniak LS, Hovell MF, Wojcik JR, Winett RA, Martinez-Donate AP. Enhancing theoretical fidelity: An e-mail-based walking program demonstration. Am J Health Promot. 2005; 20: 85–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Levy SS, Cardinal BJ. Effects of a self-determination theory-based mail-mediated intervention on adults' exercise behavior. Am J Health Promot. 2004; 18: 345–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Nichols JF, Wellman E, Caparosa S, Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Rowe R. Impact of a worksite behavioral skills intervention. Am J Health Promot. 2000; 14: 218–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Patten CA, Armstrong CA, Martin JE, Sallis JF, Booth J. Behavioral control of exercise in adults: Studies 7 and 8. Psychol Health. 2000; 15(4): 571.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Castro CM, Sallis JF, Hickman SA, Lee RE, Chen AH. A prospective study of psychosocial correlates of physical activity for ethnic minority women. Psychol Health. 1999; 14(2): 277.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Alcaraz JE, Gehrman C, Johnson BS. Potential mediators of change in a physical activity promotion course for university students: Project Grad. Annals Behav Med. 1999; 21: 149–158.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Dwyer JJM. Effect of perceived choice of music on exercise intrinsic motivation. Health Values: The Journal of Health Behavior Education & Promotion. 1995; 19(2): 18–26.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hardeman W, Kinmonth AL, Michie S, Sutton S. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2009; 6: 10.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ajzen I. Constructing a TPB questionnaire: Conceptual and methodological considerations. 2002 [cited 2007 April 7]; Available from: http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~aizen/.
  138. 138.
    Jones LW, Sinclair RC, Rhodes RE, Courneya KS. Promoting exercise behaviour: An integration of persuasion theories and the theory of planned behaviour. Br J Health Psychol. 2004; 9: 505–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992; 112: 155–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Spence JC, Burgess JA, Cutumisu N, et al. Self-efficacy and physical activity: A quantitative review. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2006; 28: S172.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hagger M, Chatzisarantis NLD, Biddle SJH. A meta-analytic review of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior in physical activity: Predictive validity and the contribution of additional variables. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2002; 24: 1–12.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sutton S. Predicting and explaining intentions and behavior: How are we doing? J Appl Soc Psychol. 1998; 28: 1317–1338.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bellows-Riecken KH, Rhodes RE. The birth of inactivity? A review of physical activity and parenthood. Prev Med. 2008; 46: 99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rhodes RE, Smith NEI. Personality correlates of physical activity: A review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2006; 40: 958–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lawton R, Conner M, Parker D. Beyond cognition: Predicting health risk behaviors from instrumental and affective beliefs. Health Psychol. 2007; 26: 259–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Loewenstein GF, Weber E, Hsee CK, Welch N. Risk as feelings. Psychol Bull. 2001; 127: 267–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Giner-Sorolla R. Guilty pleasures and grim necessities: Affective attitudes in dilemmas of self-control. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001; 80: 206–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. The relationship between exercise intensity and affective responses demystified: To crack the 40 year-old nut, replace the 40-year-old nutcracker! Annals Behav Med. 2008; 35: 136–149.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sandberg T, Conner M. Anticipated regret as an additional predictor in the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analysis. Br J Soc Psychol. 2008; 47: 589–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Rhodes RE, Courneya KS. Self-efficacy, controllability, and intention in the theory of planned behavior: Measurement redundancy or causal independence? Psychol Health. 2003; 18: 79–91.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rhodes RE, Blanchard CM. What do confidence items measure in the physical activity domain? J Appl Soc Psychol. 2007; 37: 753–768.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rhodes RE, Courneya KS. Differentiating motivation and control in the theory of planned behavior. Psychol Health Med. 2004; 9: 205–215.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Ekkekakis P, Lind E. Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: The impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. Int J Obes. 2006; 30: 652–660.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    McAuley E, Talbot HM, Martinez S. Manipulating self-efficacy in the exercise environment in women: Influences on affective responses. Health Psychol. 1999; 18: 288–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Motl RW, Berger BG, Leuschen PS. The role of enjoyment in the exercise-mood relationship. Int J Sport Psychol. 2000; 31: 347–363.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Csikszentmihalyi M. Flow, the psychology of experience. New York: Harper & Row; 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioural Medicine Laboratory, Faculty of EducationUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.University of LeedsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations