Advertisement

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 38, Supplement 1, pp 56–73 | Cite as

A Review of Environmental Influences on Food Choices

  • Nicole LarsonEmail author
  • Mary Story
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Diet-related environmental and policy interventions are being advocated at a population level because individual change is more likely to be facilitated and sustained if the environment within which choices are made supports healthful food options.

Purpose

This study aims to review research that examines factors having an influence on food choices in social environments, physical environments, and macroenvironments.

Methods

A snowball strategy was used to identify relevant peer-reviewed studies and reviews, with a focus on research completed in the US and published within the past 10 years.

Results

Research has identified a number of environmental factors associated with dietary intake; however, the majority of completed studies have methodological limitations which limit their credibility to guide interventions and policy changes.

Conclusions

Future research will need to emphasize multilevel investigations, examine how associations vary across population subgroups, develop a standard set of measures for assessing food environments and policies, and improve dietary assessment methodology.

Keywords

Dietary intake Eating behavior Social norms Environment Policy 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Healthy Eating Research Program.

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. Available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/ac911e/ac911e00.pdf. Accessed December 2, 2008.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: The development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med. 1999; 29: 563-570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sallis J, Owen N. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer B, Lewis F, eds. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2002: 462-484.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brug J, van Lenthe F, eds. Environmental determinants and interventions for physical activity, nutrition and smoking: a review. Zoetermeer: Speed-Print; 2005: 378-389.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kremers S, de Bruijn G, Visscher T, van Mechelen W, de Vries NK, Brug J. Environmental influences on energy balance-related behaviors: A dual-process view. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006; 3: 9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ball K, Timperio A, Crawford D. Understanding environmental influences on nutrition and physical activity behaviors: Where should we look and what should we count? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006; 3: 33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    van der Horst K, Oenema A, Ferreira I, et al. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth. Health Educ Res. 2007; 22: 203-226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baranowski T, Cullen K, Baranowski J. Psychosocial correlates of dietary intake: Advancing dietary intervention. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999; 19: 17-40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shaikh A, Yaroch A, Nebeling L, Yeh M-C, Resnicow K. Psychosocial predictors of fruit and vegetable consumption in adults: A review of the literature. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34: 535-543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kremers S, Visscher T, Seidell J, van Mechelen W, Brug J. Cognitive determinants of energy balance-related behaviors: Measurement issues. Sports Med. 2005; 35: 923-933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feunekes G, deGraaf C, Meyboom S, van Staveren WA. Food choice and fat intake of adolescents and adults: Associations of intakes within social networks. Prev Med. 1998; 27: 645-656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fisher J, Mitchell D, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch L. Maternal milk consumption predicts the tradeoff between milk and soft drinks in young girls’ diets. J Nutr. 2000; 131: 246-250.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patterson T, Rupp J, Sallis J, Atkins C, Nader P. Aggregation of dietary calories, fats, and sodium in Mexican–American and Anglo families. Am J Prev Med. 1988; 4: 75-82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hannon P, Bowen D, Moinpour C, McLerran D. Correlations in perceived food use between the family food preparer and their spouses and children. Appetite. 2003; 40: 77-83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Savage J, Orlet Fisher J, Birch L. Parental influence on eating behavior: Conception to adolescence. J Law Med Ethics. 2007; 35: 22-34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski J. Fruit and vegetable availability: A micro environmental mediating variable? Public Health Nutr. 2007; 10: 681-689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kratt P, Reynolds K, Shewchuk R. The role of availability as a moderator of family fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Educ Behav. 2000; 27: 471-482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chandon P, Wansink B. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience–salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. J Mark Res. 2002; 39: 321-325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baranowski T, Watson K, Missaghian M, et al. Social support is a primary influence on home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 1231-1235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fisher J, Mitchell D, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch L. Parental influences on young girls’ fruit and vegetable, micronutrient, and fat intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 58-64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wardle J, Carnell S, Cooke L. Parental control over feeding and children’s fruit and vegetable intake: How are they related? J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 227-232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hanson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Eisenberg ME, Story M, Wall M. Associations between parental report of the home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables and dairy foods. Public Health Nutr. 2005; 8: 77-85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Young E, Fors S, Hayes D. Associations between perceived parent behaviors and middle school student fruit and vegetable consumption. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2004; 36: 2-12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arcan C, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan P, van den Berg P, Story M, Larson N. Parental eating behaviors, home food environment and adolescent intakes of fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods: Longitudinal findings from Project EAT. Public Health Nutr. 2007; 10: 1257-1265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bante H, Elliott M, Harrod A, Haire-Joshu D. The use of inappropriate feeding practices by rural parents and their effect on preschoolers’ fruit and vegetable preferences and intake. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2008; 40: 28-33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Galloway A, Fiorito L, Francis L, Birch L. “Finish your soup”: Counterproductive effects of pressuring children to eat on intake and affect. Appetite. 2006; 46: 318-323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Patrick H, Nicklas T, Hughes S, Morales M. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: Caregiver feeding styles and children’s food consumption patterns. Appetite. 2005; 44: 243-249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rhee K, Lumeng J, Appugliese D, Kaciroti N, Bradley R. Parenting styles and overweight status in first grade. Pediatrics. 2006; 17: 2047-2054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Haapalahti M, Mykkanen H, Tikkanen S, Kokkonen J. Meal patterns and food use in 10- to 11-year-old Finnish children. Public Health Nutr. 2003; 6: 365-370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Videon T, Manning C. Influences on adolescent eating patterns: The importance of family meals. J Adolesc Health. 2003; 32: 365-373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan PJ, Story M, Croll J, Perry C. Family meal patterns: Associations with sociodemographic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 317-322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan P, Story M. Family meals during adolescence are associated with higher diet quality and healthful meal patterns during young adulthood. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1502-1510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burgess-Champoux T, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D, Hannan P. Are family meal patterns associated with overall diet quality during the transition from early to middle adolescence? J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009; 41: 79-86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fisher J, Mitchell D, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mannino M, Birch L. Meeting calcium recommendations during middle childhood reflects mother–daughter beverage choices and predicts bone mineral status. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004; 79: 698-706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wansink B, Cheney M. Super bowls: Serving bowl size and food consumption. JAMA. 2005; 293: 1727-1728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wansink B, Van Ittersum K, Painter J. Ice cream illusions: Bowl size, spoon size, and serving size. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 31: 240-243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fisher J, Rolls B, Birch L. Children’s bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 77: 1164-1170.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boutelle K, Birnbaum A, Lytle L, Murray D, Story M. Associations between perceived family meal environment and parent intake of fruit, vegetables, and fat. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2003; 35: 24-29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Coon K, Goldberg J, Rogers B, Tucker K. Relationships between use of television during meals and children’s food consumption patterns. Pediatrics. 2001; 107: E7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Feldman S, Eisenberg M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Associations between watching TV during family meals and dietary intake among adolescents. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2007; 39: 257-263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    O’Dea J. Why do kids eat healthful food? Perceived benefits of and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 497-500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kubik M, Lytle L, Fulkerson J. Fruits, vegetables, and football: findings from focus groups with alternative high school students regarding eating and physical activity. J Adolesc Health. 2005; 36: 494-500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Contento I, Williams S, Michela J, Franklin A. Understanding the food choice process of adolescents in the context of family and friends. J Adolesc Health. 2006; 38: 575-582.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McGee B, Richardson V, Johnson G, et al. Perceptions of factors influencing healthful food consumption behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus group findings. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2008; 40: 102-109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stanton C, Green S, Fries E. Diet-specific social support among rural adolescents. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2007; 39: 214-218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Steptoe A, Perkins-Porras L, Rink E, Hilton S, Cappuccio F. Psychological and social predictors of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption over 12 months following behavioral and nutrition education counseling. Health Psychol. 2004; 23: 574-581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Emmons K, Barbeau E, Gutheil C, Stryker J, Stoddard A. Social influences, social context, and health behaviors among working-class, multi-ethnic adults. Health Educ Behav. 2007; 34: 315-334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sorensen G, Stoddard A, Dubowitz T, et al. The influence of social context on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption: Results of the healthy directions studies. Am J Public Health. 2007; 97: 1216-1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Salvy S, Kieffer E, Epstein L. Effects of social context on overweight and normal-weight children’s food selection. Eat Behav. 2008; 9: 190-196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Herman C, Polivy J, Roth D. Effects of the presence of others on food intake: A normative interpretation. Psychol Bull. 2003; 129: 873-886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leone T, Pliner P, Herman C. Influence of clear versus ambiguous normative information on food intake. Appetite. 2007; 49: 58-65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Salvy S-J, Coelho J, Kieffer E, Epstein L. Effects of social context on overweight and normal-weight children’s food intake. Physiol Behav. 2007; 92: 840-846.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Salvy S-J, Romero N, Paluch R, Epstein L. Peer influence on pre-adolescent girls’ snack intake: Effects of weight status. Appetite. 2007; 49: 177-182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schutz H, Paxton S. Friendship quality, body dissatisfaction, dieting, and disordered eating in adolescent girls. Br J Clin Psychol. 2007; 46: 67-83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Perry C. The role of social norms and friends’ influences on unhealthy weight-control behaviors among adolescent girls. Soc Sci Med. 2005; 60: 1165-1173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lieberman M, Gauvin L, Bukowski W, White D. Interpersonal influence and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls: the role of peer modeling, social reinforcement, and body-related teasing. Eat Behav. 2001; 2: 215-236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Eisenberg ME, Hannan PJ. Weight teasing and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents: Longitudinal findings from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Pediatrics. 2006; 117: e209-e215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gerner B, Wilson P. The relationship between friendship factors and adolescent girls’ body image concern, body dissatisfaction, and restrained eating. Int J Eat Disord. 2005; 37: 313-320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Christakis N, Fowler J. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med. 2007; 357: 370-379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trogdon J, Nonnemaker J, Pais J. Peer effects in adolescent overweight. J Health Econ. 2008; 27: 1388-1399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cohen-Cole E, Fletcher J. Is obesity contagious? Social networks vs. environmental factors in the obesity epidemic. J Health Econ. 2008; 27: 1382-1387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wing R, Jeffery R. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999; 67: 132-138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jelalian E, Mehlenbeck R, Lloyd-Richardson E, Birmaher V, Wing R. ‘Adventure therapy’ combined with cognitive-behavioral treatment for overweight adolescents. Int J Obes. 2006; 30: 31-39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. Working families and growing kids: Caring for children and adolescents. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Story M, Kaphingst KM, French S. The role of child care settings in obesity prevention. Future Child. 2006; 16: 143-168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ball S, Benjamin S, Ward D. Dietary intake in North Carolina child-care centers: Are children meeting current recommendations? J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 718-721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Food Research Action Center. State of the states: 2007. A profile of food and nutrition programs across the nation. 2007. Available at http://www.frac.org/SOS%202007%20Report.pdf. Accessed December 2, 2008.
  68. 68.
    Gleason P, Suitor C. Children’s diets in the mid-1990s: Dietary intake and its relationship with school meal participation. Special nutrition programs: Report no CN-01-CD1. Alexandria: US Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service; 2001. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/MENU/Published/CNP/FILES/ChilDiet.pdf. Accessed December 4, 2008.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Institute of Medicine. Nutrition standards for foods in schools: Leading the way toward healthier youth. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    O’Toole T, Anderson S, Miller C, Guthrie J. Nutrition services and foods and beverages available at school: Results from the school health policies and programs study 2006. J Sch Health. 2007; 77: 500-521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gordon A, Fox M. School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study-III: summary of findings. 2007. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/oane/menu/Published/CNP/FILES/SNDAIII-SummaryofFindings.pdf. Accessed November 28, 2008.
  72. 72.
    Finkelstein D, Hill E, Whitaker R. School food environments and policies in U.S. public schools. Pediatrics. 2008; 122: e251-e259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Story M, Kaphingst K, French S. The role of schools in obesity prevention. Future Child. 2006; 16: 109-142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. The employment situation: September 2008. Available at http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/empsit_10032008.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2008.
  75. 75.
    Sorensen G, Linnan L, Hunt MK. Worksite-based research and initiatives to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Prev Med. 2004; 39: S94-S100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Engbers L, van Poppel MNM, Paw M, van Mechelen W. Worksite health promotion programs with environmental changes: A systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2005; 29: 61-70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kruger J, Yore M, Bauer D, Kohl H. Selected barriers and incentives for worksite health promotion services and policies. Am J Health Promot. 2007; 21: 439-447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Shimotsu S, French S, Gerlach A, Hannan P. Worksite environment physical activity and healthy food choices: measurement of the worksite food and physical activity environment at four metropolitan bus garages. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007; 4: 17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Thompson S, Smith B, Bybee R. Factors influencing participation in worksite wellness programs among minority and underserved populations. Fam Commun Health. 2005; 28: 267-273.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    French S, Harnack L, Toomey T, Hannan P. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007; 4: 52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jeffery RW, French SA, Raether C, Baxter JE. An environmental intervention to increase fruit and salad purchases in a cafeteria. Prev Med. 1994; 23: 788-792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Pratt C, Lemon S, Fernandez I, et al. Design characteristics of worksite environmental interventions for obesity. Obesity. 2007; 15: 2171-2180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Story M, Smyth M, School of Public Health Nutrition Faculty and Staff. Guidelines for offering healthy foods at meetings, seminars, and catered events. Available at http://www.sph.umn.edu/img/assets/9103/Nutrition_Guide_2008.pdf. Accessed November 1, 2008.
  84. 84.
    Sorensen G, Thompson B, Glanz K, et al. Work site-based cancer prevention: Primary results from the working well trial. Am J Public Health. 1996; 86: 939-947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sorensen G, Stoddard A, Peterson K, et al. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption through worksites and families in the Treatwell 5-a-Day Study. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89: 54-60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Beresford S, Thompson B, Feng Z, Christianson A, McLerran D, Patrick D. Seattle 5 a day worksite program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Prev Med. 2001; 32: 230-238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sorensen G, Barbeau E, Stoddard A, Hunt M, Kaphingst K, Wallace L. Promoting behavior change among working-class, multiethnic workers: Results of the healthy directions-small business study. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 1389-1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sorensen G, Stoddard A, Macario E. Social support and readiness to make dietary changes. Health Educ Behav. 1998; 25: 586-598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Buller D, Morrill C, Taren D, et al. Randomized trial testing the effect of peer education at increasing fruit and vegetable intake. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91: 1491-1500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    US Census Bureau. North American Industry Classification System. 2007. Available at http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. Accessed November 28, 2008.
  91. 91.
    Bodor J, Rose D, Farley T, Swalm C, Scott S. Neighborhood fruit and vegetable availability and consumption: The role of small food stores in an urban environment. Public Health Nutr. 2008; 11: 413-420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zenk SN, Schulz AJ, Israel BA, James SA, Bao S, Wilson ML. Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit, Michigan. Ethn Dis. 2006; 16: 275-280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Laraia BA, Siega-Riz AM, Kaufman JS, Jones SJ. Proximity of supermarkets is positively associated with diet quality index for pregnancy. Prev Med. 2004; 39: 869-875.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rose D, Richards R. Food store access and household fruit and vegetable use among participants in the U.S. Food Stamp Program. Public Health Nutr. 2004; 7: 1081-1088.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Morland K, Wing S, Diez-Roux A. The contextual effect of the local food environment on residents’ diets: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 1761-1767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Moore L, Roux AD, Nettleton J, Jacobs D. Associations of the local food environment with diet quality—A comparison of assessments based on surveys and Geographic Information Systems: The Multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 167: 917-924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Timperio A, Ball K, Roberts R, Campbell K, Andrianopoulos N, Crawford D. Children’s fruit and vegetable intake: Associations with the neighborhood food environment. Prev Med. 2008; 46: 331-335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Jago R, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen K, Thompson D. Distance to food stores and adolescent male fruit and vegetable consumption: Mediation effects. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2007; 4: 35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 333-339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Powell L, Auld C, Chaloupka F, O’Malley P, Johnston L. Associations between access to food stores and adolescent body mass index. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 33: S301-S307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Liu G, Wilson J, Qi R, Ying J. Green neighborhoods, food retail and childhood overweight: Differences by population density. Am J Health Promot. 2007; 21: 317-325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fisher BD, Strogatz DS. Community measures of low-fat milk consumption: Comparing store shelves with households. Am J Public Health. 1999; 89: 235-237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cheadle A, Psaty BM, Curry S, et al. Community-level comparisons between the grocery store environment and individual dietary practices. Prev Med. 1991; 20: 250-261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Edmonds J, Baranowski T, Baranowski J, Cullen K, Myres D. Ecological and socioeconomic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption among African–American boys. Prev Med. 2001; 32: 476-481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Auchincloss A, Diez-Roux A, Brown D, Erdmann C, Bertoni A. Neighborhood resources for physical activity and healthy foods and their association with insulin resistance. Epidemiol. 2008; 19: 146-157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Grindy B, Karaer A, Riehle H, National Restaurant Association. 2008 Restaurant industry forecast. 2007. Available at http://www.restaurant.org/research/forecast.cfm. Accessed November 2, 2008.
  107. 107.
    Wikipedia. Fast food restaurant. 2008. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fast_food_restaurant. Accessed November 29, 2008.
  108. 108.
    Bowman S, Vinyard B. Fast food consumption of U.S. adults: Impact on energy and nutrient intakes and overweight status. J Am Coll Nutr. 2004; 23: 163-168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pereira M, Kartashov A, Ebbeling C, et al. Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis. Lancet. 2005; 365: 36-42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Duffey K, Gordon-Larsen P, Jacobs D, Williams O, Popkin B. Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass index: The coronary artery risk development in young adults study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 201-208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    French S, Harnack L, Jeffery R. Fast food restaurant use among women in the Pound of Prevention study: Dietary, behavioral and demographic correlates. Int J Obes. 2000; 24: 1353-1359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jeffery RW, Baxter J, McGuire M, Linde J. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006; 3: 2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Mehta N, Chang V. Weight status and restaurant availability: A multilevel analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34: 127-133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: State-level analysis. Am J Health Promot. 2004; 19: 137-143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schmidt M, Affenito S, Striegel-Moore R, et al. Fast-food intake and diet quality in black and white girls. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005; 159: 626-631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bowman S, Gortmaker S, Ebbeling C, Pereira M, Ludwig D. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household survey. Pediatrics. 2004; 113: 112-118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Powell L, Auld M, Chaloupka F, O’Malley P, Johnston L. Access to fast food and food prices: Relationship with fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight among adolescents. Adv Health Econ Health Serv Res. 2007; 17: 23-48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: Relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children. Prev Med. 2004; 38: 57-63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chou S-Y, Rashad I, Grossman M. Fast-food restaurant advertising on television and its influence on childhood obesity. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research; 2005. Available at http://www.aeaweb.org/annual_mtg_papers/2007/0106_1015_2004.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2008.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    O’Donnell S, Hoerr S, Mendoza J, Goh E. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 1388-1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Prentice AM, Jebb SA. Fast foods, energy density and obesity: A possible mechanistic link. Obes Rev. 2003; 4: 187-194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wootan M, Osborn M. Availability of nutrition information from chain restaurants in the United States. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 266-268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Harnack L. Availability of nutrition information on menus at major chain table-service restaurants. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 1012-1015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Yamamoto J, Yamamoto J, Yamamoto B, Yamamoto L. Adolescent fast food and restaurant ordering behavior with and without calorie and fat content menu information. J Adolesc Health. 2005; 37: 297-402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bassett M, Dumanovsky T, Huang C, et al. Purchasing behavior and calorie information at fast-food chains in New York City, 2007. Am J Public Health. 2008; 98: 1457-1459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gerend M. Does calorie information promote lower calorie fast food choices among college students? J Adolesc Health. 2009; 44: 84-86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Seymour J, Yaroch A, Serdula M, Blanck H, Khan L. Impact of nutrition environmental interventions on point-of-purchase behavior in adults: A review. Prev Med. 2004; 39: S108-S136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kant A, Graubard B. Secular trends in the association of socio-economic position with self-reported dietary attributes and biomarkers in the US population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1971–1975 to NHANES 1999–2002. Public Health Nutr. 2007; 10: 158-167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Miech R, Kumanyika S, Stettler N, Link B, Phelan J, Chang V. Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents, 1971–2004. JAMA. 2006; 295: 2385-2393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Robbins J, Vaccarino V, Zhang H, Kasi S. Socioeconomic status and diagnosed diabetes incidence. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005; 68: 230-236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Muenning P, Sohler N, Mahato B. Socioeconomic status as an independent predictor of physiological biomarkers of cardiovascular disease: Evidence from NHANES. Prev Med. 2007; 45: 35-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ma J, Johns R, Stafford R. Americans are not meeting current calcium recommendations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007; 85: 1361-1366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kinsley T, Jemal A, Liff J, Ward E, Thun M. Secular trends in mortality from common cancers in the United States by educational attainment, 1993–2001. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008; 100: 1003-1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Krebs-Smith S, Cook D, Subar A, Cleveland L, Friday J. U.S. adults’ fruit and vegetable intakes, 1989-1991: A revised baseline for the Healthy People 2000 Objective. Am J Public Health. 1995; 85: 1623-1629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ervin R. Healthy Eating Index scores among adults, 60 years of age and over, by sociodemographic and health characteristics: United States, 1999–2002. Adv Data. 2008; 395: 1-16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Casagrande S, Wang Y, Anderson C, Gary T. Have Americans increased their fruit and vegetable intake? The trends between 1988 and 2002. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 32: 257-263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Shimakawa T, Sorlie P, Carpenter M, et al. Dietary intake patterns and sociodemographic factors in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Prev Med. 1994; 23: 769-780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan P, Croll J. Overweight status and eating patterns among adolescents: Where do youths stand in comparison with the Healthy People 2010 objectives? Am J Public Health. 2002; 92: 844-851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Harnack L, Walters S, Jacobs D. Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among U.S. children and adolescents: Data from the 1994–1996 Continuing survey of food intakes by individuals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 1015-1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Xie B, Gilliland F, Li Y, Rockett H. Effects of ethnicity, family income, and education on dietary intake among adolescents. Prev Med. 2003; 36: 30-40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kranz S, Findeis J, Shrestha S. Use of the revised children’s diet quality index to assess preschooler’s diet quality, its sociodemographic predictors, and its association with body weight status. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008; 84: 26-34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Hendricks K, Briefel R, Novak T, Ziegler P. Maternal and child characteristics associated with infant and toddler feeding practices. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: S135-S148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Johnson R, Panely C, Wang M. Associations between the milk mothers drink and the milk consumed by their school-aged children. Fam Econ Nutr Rev. 2001; 13: 27-36.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Winicki J, Joliffe D, Gundersen C. How do food assistance programs improve the well-being of low-income families? Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report #26-9. 2002. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/fanrr26/fanrr26-9/fanrr26-9.pdf. Accessed October 19, 2008.
  145. 145.
    Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Wall M, Harnack L, Eisenberg M. Fast food intake: Longitudinal trends during the transition to young adulthood and correlates of intake. J Adolesc Health. 2008; 43: 79-86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Alaimo K, Olson C, Frongillo E. Low family income and food insufficiency in relation to overweight in US children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2001; 155: 1161-1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ford E, Sowell A. Serum alpha-tocopherol status in the United States population: Findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Am J Epidemiol. 1999; 150: 290-300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Herrndorf A, Haydu S, Takahashi E. Trends in folic acid supplement intake among women of reproductive age—California, 2002–2006. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007; 56: 1106-1109.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Diez-Roux AV, Nieto FJ, Caulfield L, Tyroler HA, Watson RL, Szklo M. Neighbourhood differences in diet: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1999; 53: 55-63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Stimpson J, Nash A, Ju H, Eschbach K. Neighborhood deprivation is associated with lower levels of serum carotenoids among adults participating in the third national health and nutrition examination survey. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007; 107: 1895-1902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Dubowitz T, Heron M, Bird C, et al. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and fruit and vegetable intake among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 1883-1891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Block D, Kouba J. A comparison of the availability and affordability of a market basket in two communities in the Chicago area. Public Health Nutr. 2006; 9: 837-845.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Larson N, Story M, Nelson M. Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: 74-81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Powell L, Slater S, Mirtcheva D, Bao Y, Chaloupka F. Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med. 2007; 44: 189-195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Delva J, O’Malley P, Johnston L. Availability of more-healthy and less-healthy food choices in American schools. A national study of grade, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic differences. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 33: S226-S239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Zenk S, Powell L. U.S. secondary schools and food outlets. Health & Place. 2008; 14: 336-346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sturm R. Disparities in the food environment surrounding US middle and high schools. Public Health. 2008; 122: 681-690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Jetter K, Cassady D. The availability and cost of healthier food alternatives. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 38-44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ard J, Fitzpatrick S, Desmond R, et al. The impact of cost on the availability of fruits and vegetables in the homes of schoolchildren in Birmingham, Alabama. Am J Pub Health. 2007; 97: 367-372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Chase K, Reicks M, Smith C, Henry H, Reimer K. Use of the think-aloud method to identify factors influencing purchase of bread and cereals by low-income African American women and implications for whole-grain education. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003; 103: 501-504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Dietz W. Does hunger cause obesity? Pediatrics. 1995; 95: 766-767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Darmon N, Ferguson E, Briend A. Do economic constraints encourage the selection of energy dense diets? Appetite. 2003; 41: 315-322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Stewart H, Blisard N. The thrifty food plan and low-income households in the United States: What food groups are being neglected? Food Policy. 2006; 31: 469-482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mancino L, Newman C. Who has time to cook? How family resources influence food preparation. Economic Research Service Report #40. 2007. Available at http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/err40. Accessed October 19, 2008.
  165. 165.
    Carlson A, Lino M, Juan W-Y, Hanson K, Basiotis P. Thrifty food plan, 2006. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP-19). 2007. Available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/FoodPlans/MiscPubs/TFP2006Report.pdf. Accessed October 19, 2008.
  166. 166.
    Caprio S, Daniels S, Drenowski A, et al. Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: Implications for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: 2211-2221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Institute of Medicine. Speaking of health: Assessing health communication strategies for diverse populations. Washington D.C: National Academies Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    McGinnis J, Gootman J, Kraak V, eds. Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity?. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Satia-Abouta J. Dietary acculturation: Definition, process, assessment, and implications. Int J Human Ecol. 2003; 4: 71-86.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kumanyika S, Grier S. Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations. Future Child. 2006; 16: 187-208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Federal Trade Commission. Marketing food to children and adolescents: A review of industry expenditures, activities, and self-regulation. Washington, D.C.: Federal Trade Commission; 2008. Available at http://www.ftc.gov/os/2008/07/P064504foodmktingreport.pdf. Accessed August 3, 2008.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Batada A, Seitz M, Wootan M, Story M. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children’s television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 673-678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Harrison K, Marske AL. Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most. Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 1568-1574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Powell L, Szczypka G, Chaloupka F, Braunschweig C. Nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics. 2007; 120: 576-583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Alvy L, Calvert S. Food marketing on popular children’s web sites: A content analysis. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 710-713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Robinson T, Borzekowski D, Matheson D, Kraemer H. Effects of fast food branding on young children’s taste preferences. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161: 792-797.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Lindstrom M, Seybold P. Brand child: Remarkable insights into the minds of today’s global kids and their relationships with brands. London: Kogan Page; 2003.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Institute of Medicine, Committee on Food Marketing and the Diets of Children and Youth, Food and Nutrition Board, et al. Food marketing to children and youth: Threat or opportunity?. Washington, D.C: The National Academies Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Buijzen M, Schuurman J, Bomhof E. Associations between children’s television advertising exposure and their food consumption patterns: A household diary-survey study. Appetite. 2008; 50: 231-239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Hawkes C. Marketing food to children: The global regulatory environment. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2004. Available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241591579.pdf. Accessed July 19, 2008.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Children’s Advertising Review Unit. Self-regulatory guidelines for children’s advertising. 2006. Available at http://www.caru.org/guidelines/guidelines.pdf. Accessed December 5, 2008.
  182. 182.
    Golan E, Unnevehr L. Food product composition, consumer health, and public policy: Introduction and overview of special section. Food Policy. 2008; 33: 465-469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Beghin J, Jensen H. Farm policies and added sugars in U.S. diets. Food Policy. 2008; 33: 480-488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Schnoonover H, Muller M. Food without thought: How US farm policy contributes to obesity. Minneapolis: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; 2006. Available at http://www.iatp.org/iatp/publications.cfm?accountID=421&refID=80627. Accessed December 3, 2008.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Putnam J. Major trends in the US food supply. FoodReview. 2000; 23: 13.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Muller M, Schnoover H, Wallinga D. Considering the contribution of US food and agriculture policy to the obesity epidemic: Overview and opportunities. Minneapolis: Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy; 2007. Available at http://www.iatp.org/iatp/publications.cfm?accountID=421&refID=99607. Accessed December 2, 2008.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Sallis J, Story M, Lou D. Study designs and analytic strategies for environmental and policy research on obesity, physical activity, and diet: Recommendations from a meeting of experts. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: S72-S77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Huang T, Glass T. Transforming research strategies for understanding and preventing obesity. JAMA. 2008; 300: 1811-1813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Kumanyika S. Environmental influences on childhood obesity: Ethnic and cultural influences in context. Physiol Behav. 2008; 94: 61-70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Outley C, Taddese A. A content analysis of health and physical activity messages marketed to African American children during after-school television programming. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006; 160: 432-435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Story M, Giles-Corti B, Yaroch A, et al. Work Group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: S182-S188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    McKinnon R, Orleans C, Kumanyika S, et al. Considerations for an obesity policy research agenda. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: 351-357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Huang T, Drewnoski A, Kumanyika S, Glass T. A systems-oriented multilevel framework for addressing obesity in the 21st century. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009;6:A97. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/jul/09_0013.htm. Accessed July 3, 2009.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Huang T. Solution-oriented research: Converging efforts of promoting environmental sustainability and obesity prevention. Am J Prev Med. 2009; 36: S60-S62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Behavioral Medicine 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations