d-Limonene: a bioactive food component from citrus and evidence for a potential role in breast cancer prevention and treatment
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- Miller, J.A., Thompson, P.A., Hakim, I.A. et al. Oncol Rev (2011) 5: 31. doi:10.1007/s12156-010-0066-8
Although limited, observations from cell culture, animal, and epidemiological studies support the presence of anti-cancer properties in citrus peel and the primary bioactive food constituent, d-limonene. Early evidence from animal models suggests that when ingested, d-limonene exhibits a wide spectrum of biologic activity including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. In some of these early models, an analog of d-limonene, perillyl alcohol, demonstrated a more potent effect than d-limonene itself. Yet, when perillyl alcohol advanced to clinical trials, several trials were ended early due to dose-limiting toxicities. Alternatively, oral d-limonene administration in humans is well tolerated even at high doses supporting its investigation as a potential bioactive for cancer prevention. Though the exact mechanisms of action of d-limonene are unclear, immune modulation and anti-proliferative effects are commonly reported. Here, we review the pre-clinical evidence for d-limonene’s anti-cancer mechanisms, bioavailability, and safety, as well as the evidence for anti-cancer effects in humans, focusing on studies relevant to its use in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.