Manihot glaziovii-Bonded and Bioethanol-Infused Charcoal Dust Briquettes: A New Route of Addressing Sustainability, Ignition, and Food Security Issues in Briquette Production

  • Lynder E. GesaseEmail author
  • Cecil K. King’onduEmail author
  • Yusufu A. C. Jande


Most of the citizens in developing countries use charcoal for domestic cooking and small-scale enterprises because of its high calorific value, less smoke, and easy to transport. However, a lot of charcoal dust is generated from charcoal trading activities. The dust is left as heaps of solid wastes in urban areas and sometimes thrown in water streams, thus being a nuisance to both humans and the environment. This study aimed to develop and characterize charcoal dust briquettes bonded with wild cassava Manihot glaziovii and also use of bioethanol to enhance briquette ignition. The percentages of binder to charcoal dust were varied from 5 to 30%. Proximate analysis, density, ignition time, burning rate, burning time, and calorific value were determined. The density of the produced briquettes ranged from 0.67 ± 0 to 0.83 ± 0.1 g/cm3; percentage of moisture content varied from 3.4 ± 0.2 to 4.2 ± 0.2; ash content varied from 19.6 ± 0.6 to 21.5 ± 0; percentage volatile matter ranged from 19.8 ± 0.3 to 24.3 ± 0.4; and percentage fixed carbon ranged from 51.9 ± 1.1 to 55.3 ± 0.2. The calorific value ranged from 17.7 ± 0.7 to 19.7 ± 0.3 MJ/kg, ignition time 139 to 163 s, and burning rate 0.3 to 0.7 g/min while water boiling time varied from 14 to 19 min and burning time from 85 to 116 min. Ignition test revealed that bioethanol ratio of 15 mL to 56 g of the briquette showed the best briquette ignition characteristics. It was further found that the amount of binder used influenced the combustion properties of the briquettes. This study also showed that charcoal dust could be compacted to briquettes using Manihot glaziovii as a binder. The overall performance of the briquettes showed that 5% binder gave the best results in terms of combustion characteristics.


Charcoal dust Manihot glaziovii Briquette binder Bioethanol Ignition 



The authors thank the Water Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy Futures center (WISE-Futures) for supporting this study

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest

Supplementary material

12155_2019_10076_MOESM1_ESM.docx (84 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 84 kb)


  1. 1.
    Yaman S, Şahan M, Haykiri-Acma H, Şeşen K, Küçükbayrak S (2000) Production of fuel briquettes from olive refuse and paper mill waste. Fuel Process Technol 68(1):23–31. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carnaje NP, Talagon RB, Peralta JP, Shah K, Paz-Ferreiro J (2018) Development and characterisation of charcoal briquettes from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)-molasses blend. PLoS One 13(11):e0207135. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Njenga M, Karanja N, Munster C, Iiyama M, Neufeldt H, Kithinji J, Jamnadass R (2013) Charcoal production and strategies to enhance its sustainability in Kenya. Dev Pract 23(3):359–371. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dam J (2017) The charcoal transition: greening the charcoal value chain to mitigate climate change and improve local livelihoods. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome Accessed date: 25 December 2018Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lokina R, Mapunda G (2017) Willingness to switch from charcoal to alternative energy sources in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania Econ Rev 5(1-2) Accessed Date: 13 December 2018
  6. 6.
    Njenga M, Karanja N, Karlsson H, Jamnadass R, Iiyama M, Kithinji J, Sundberg C (2014) Additional cooking fuel supply and reduced global warming potential from recycling charcoal dust into charcoal briquette in Kenya. J Clean Prod 81:81–88. Accessed date: 13 December 2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ferguson H (2012) Briquette businesses in Uganda: the potential for briquettes enterprises to address the sustainability of the Ugandan biomass fuel market. G.V.E.P. International, London Accessed Date: 14 June 2017
  8. 8.
    Chaney JO (2010) Combustion characteristics of biomass briquettes, Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nottingham Accessed Date: 20 July 2017
  9. 9.
    Mary N (2013) Implications of charcoal briquette produced by local communities on livelihoods and environment in Nairobi Kenya. Int J Renew Energy Dev 2(1):19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okia D, Ahmed M, Ndiema C (2017) Combustion and emission characteristics of water hyacinth based composite briquettes. Sci Res J 5(11) Accessed date: 12 May 2018
  11. 11.
    Ugwu K, Agbo K (2013) Evaluation of binders in the production of briquettes from empty fruit bunches of Elaeis guineensis. Int J Renew Sustain Energy 2(4):176–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bhattacharya S, Sett S, Shrestha RM (1989) State of the art for biomass densification. Energy Sources 11(3):161–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mwampamba TH, Owen M, Pigaht M (2013) Opportunities, challenges and way forward for the charcoal briquette industry in sub-Saharan Africa. Energy Sustain Dev 17(2):158–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sotannde O, Oluyege A, Abah G (2010) Physical and combustion properties of briquettes from sawdust of Azadirachta indica. J For Res 21(1):63–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oladeji J (2013) Investigation into viability of briquettes from different agricultural residues as alternatives to wood and kerosene fuels. New York Sci J 6(8):78–83 Accessed date: 10 August 2018Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borowski G, Stępniewski W, Wójcik-Oliveira K (2017) Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties. Int Agrophys 31(4):571–574. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oyelaran OA (2014) Effects of binding ratios on some densification characteristics of groundnut shell briquettes. Iran J Energy Environ 5(2).
  18. 18.
    Demirbas A, Ahmad W, Alamoudi R, Sheikh M (2016) Sustainable charcoal production from biomass. Energy source Part A: Rec, Util, Environ Eff 38(13):1882–1889. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pradhan P, Mahajani SM, Arora A (2018) Production and utilization of fuel pellets from biomass: A review. Fuel Process Technol 181:215–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Muazu RI, Stegemann JA (2015) Effects of operating variables on durability of fuel briquettes from rice husks and corn cobs. Fuel Process Technol 133:137–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mambo W (2016) Optimal compaction pressure, particle size and binder ratio for quality briquettes made from maize cobs. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, MSc DissertationGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lubwama M, Yiga VA (2018) Characteristics of briquettes developed from rice and coffee husks for domestic cooking applications in Uganda. Renew Energy 118:43–55. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olugbade T, Ojo O, Mohammed T (2019) Influence of binders on combustion properties of biomass briquettes: a recent review. Bioenergy Res 12:1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arewa ME, Daniel IC, Kuye A (2016) Characterisation and comparison of rice husk briquettes with cassava peels and cassava starch as binders. Biofuels 7(6):671–675. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moshi AP, Crespo CF, Badshah M, Hosea KM, Mshandete AM, Elisante E, Mattiasson B (2014) Characterisation and evaluation of a novel feedstock, Manihot glaziovii, Muell. Arg, for production of bioenergy carriers: Bioethanol and biogas. Bioresour Technol 172:58–67. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sebayang A, Hassan M, Ong H, Dharma S, Silitonga A, Kusumo F, Mahlia T, Bahar A (2017) Optimization of reducing sugar production from Manihot glaziovii starch using response surface methodology. Energies 10(1):35. Accessed date: 11 April 2019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Avedikian, SZ, Instant starting briquettes. 1984, Google Patents.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hairong Y, Yunzhi P, Kuisheng W, Yanping L, Xiaoyu Z, Shuqing M, Xiujin L (2010) Ignition and emission characteristics of ignition-assisting agents for densified corn stover briquette fuel. Chin J Chem Eng 18(4):687–694. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sotannde OA, Oluyege A, Abah G (2010) Physical and combustion properties of charcoal briquettes from neem wood residues. Int Agrophys 24(2):189–194 Accessed date: 29 August 2017Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hu Q, Shao J, Yang H, Yao D, Wang X, Chen H (2015) Effects of binders on the properties of bio-char pellets. Appl Energy 157:508–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yank A, Ngadi M, Kok R (2016) Physical properties of rice husk and bran briquettes under low pressure densification for rural applications. Biomass Bioenergy 84:22–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Onchieku JM, Chikamai BN, Rao MS (2012) Optimum parameters for the formulation of charcoal briquettes using bagasse and clay as binder. Eur J Sustain Dev:477–492Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olorunnisola A (2007) Production of fuel briquettes from waste paper and coconut husk admixtures. . International Commission of Agricultural Engineering E- Journal 9. = 1&isAllowed = y. Accessed date: 6 June 2017
  34. 34.
    Chirchir DK, Nyaanga DM, and Githeko JM (2013) Effect of binder types and amount on physical and combustion characteristics. Int J Eng Sci Technol 2. Accessed date: 4 December 2018
  35. 35.
    Davies RM, Davies OA, Mohammed US (2013) Combustion characteristics of traditional energy sources and water hyacinth briquettes. Int J Sci Res Environ Sci 1(7):144. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Grover P and Mishra S (1996) Biomass briquetting: technology and practices. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Onchieku J, Chikamai B, Rao M (2012) Optimum parameters for the formulation of charcoal briquettes using bagasse and clay as binder. Eur J Sustain Dev 1(3):477–492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Abdulkareem S, Hakeem BA, Ahmed II, Ajiboye TK, Adebisi JA, Yahaya T (2018) Combustion characteristics of bio-degradable biomass briquettes. J Eng Sci Technol 13(9):2779–2791 Accessed date: 18 December 2018Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mani S, Tabil LG, Sokhansanj S (2006) Effects of compressive force, particle size and moisture content on mechanical properties of biomass pellets from grasses. Biomass Bioenergy 30:648–654. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sen R, Wiwatpanyaporn S, Annachhatre AP (2016) Influence of binders on physical properties of fuel briquettes produced from cassava rhizome waste. Int J Environ Waste Manag 17(2):158–175. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ikelle II and Joseph MN (2014) The study of briquettes produced with bitumen, CaSO4 and starch as binders. Am J Eng Res: 2320-0847.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roy MM, Corscadden KW (2012) An experimental study of combustion and emissions of biomass briquettes in a domestic wood stove. Appl Energy 99:206–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Njenga M, Karanja N, Prain G, Malii J, Munyao P, Gathuru K, Mwasi B (2009) Community-based energy briquette production from urban organic waste at Kahawa Soweto informal settlement, Nairobi. International Potato Center Lima, Peru. Number ofGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Veeresh S, Narayana J (2013) Sustainable utilization of agro-waste for high calorific energy briquettes. Energy source Part A: Rec, Util, Environ Eff 35(14):1375–1384. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Akowuah JO, Kemausuor F, Mitchual SJ (2012) Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette. Int J Energy Environ Eng 3(1):20–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zanella K, Gonçalvesb JL, Tarantoa OP (2016) Charcoal briquette production using orange bagasse and corn starch. Chem Eng 49:313–318. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Onuegbu T, Ogbu I, Ilochi N, Okafor I, Obumselu O, Ekpunobi U (2010) Enhancing the efficiency of coal briquette in rural Nigeria using Pennisetum purpureum. Adv Nat Appl Sci 4(3):299–305 Accessed date: 9 January 2019Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chin OC, Siddiqui KM (2000) Characteristics of some biomass briquettes prepared under modest die pressures. Biomass Bioenergy 18:223–228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Material, Energy Science and EngineeringNelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  2. 2.Department of Forest Engineering and Wood SciencesSokoine University of AgricultureMorogoroTanzania
  3. 3.Water Infrastructure and Sustainable Energy Futures center of excellenceNelson Mandela African Institution of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania
  4. 4.Department of Chemical and Forensic SciencesBotswana International University of Science and TechnologyPalapyeBotswana
  5. 5.Department of Physical SciencesSouth Eastern Kenya University90200 KituiKenya

Personalised recommendations