Green Biodiesel Production from Various Plant Oils Using Nanobiocatalysts Under Different Conditions

  • Parvaneh Esmaeilnejad Ahranjani
  • Mohammad Kazemeini
  • Ayyoob ArpanaeiEmail author
Original Research


The lipase-immobilized polyethyleneimine (PEI)- and polyacrylic acid (PAA)–coated magnetic silica nanocomposite particles (L-PEI-MS and L-PAA-MS, respectively) were prepared and applied at various transesterification reaction conditions. The reactions were carried out with soybean, sunflower, canola, and palm oils along with methanol or ethanol in the solvent-free and n-hexane systems. The highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) synthesis yields were obtained from the transesterification of palm oil, i.e., almost 7.7–10.2% higher than other oils. At the constant reaction conditions, the application of ethanol leads to higher (6.0–8.7%) reaction yields in comparison with methanol. In addition, irrespective of reaction conditions, the best performance was acquired by L-PEI-MS; e.g., the FAME and FAEE synthesis yield values of 81.2% and 88.3% were obtained from transesterification of palm oil in the solvent-free systems, respectively. Addition of n-hexane improved the synthesis of FAME and FAEE yield values to 88.9% and 93.3%, respectively, using L-PEI-MS. The transesterification reactions kinetics follows the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with alcohol inhibition effects. The high catalytic performance of L-PEI-MS might be related to its hydrophobic nature, which enhances the accessibility of oil molecules to the immobilized lipases and hampers the deactivating effect of alcohol molecules on them.


Immobilized lipase Polymer-coated nanoparticles Transesterification Plant oils Reaction kinetics 





Polyacrylic acid


Magnetic silica (Fe3O4 cluster@ SiO2) nanocomposite particles


PEI-coated magnetic silica nanocomposite particles


PAA-coated magnetic silica nanocomposite particles


Lipase-immobilized PEI-coated magnetic silica nanocomposite particles


Lipase-immobilized PAA-coated magnetic silica nanocomposite particles


Fatty acid methyl esters


Fatty acid ethyl esters


Initial enzymatic reaction rate (mol L−1 min−1)


Maximum reaction rate (mol L−1 min−1)

\( {K}_m^A \)

Michaelis constants of oil (mol L−1)

\( {K}_m^B \)

Michaelis constants of alcohol (mol L−1)

\( {K}_i^B \)

Inhibition constant of alcohol (mol L−1)


Funding Information

The research is financially supported by the National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of Iran.

Supplementary material

12155_2019_10022_MOESM1_ESM.docx (402 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 402 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial and Environmental BiotechnologyNational Institute of Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Petroleum EngineeringSharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

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