Sequential Enzymatic and Mild-Acid Hydrolysis of By-Product of Carrageenan Process from Kappaphycus alvarezii
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Kappaphycus alvarezii is a red macroalgae widely used to produce carrageenan. The carrageenan processing produces a by-product rich in glucan which has been reported as easily hydrolyzed with enzymes, but the hydrolysate forms a gel at usual fermentation temperatures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic hydrolysis integrated with a mild-acid treatment of the by-product to obtain a hydrolysate rich in monomeric sugars. Using an enzyme load of 10 FPU g−1 of by-product, close to 100 and 14.7% of glucan and galactan conversion were reached, respectively. Increasing the enzyme load to 100 FPU g−1 raised the galactan conversion to 30%. The mild-acid treatment after enzymatic hydrolysis was satisfactory, increasing the glucose and galactose concentrations, without producing significant amounts of fermentation inhibitors and avoiding the formation of a gel structure. The statistical analysis showed that the main effects on the response were negative for the three independent variables, meaning that the selectivity (S) becomes lower when experimental conditions at the higher levels are used (longer time, higher temperature, and acid concentration). Therefore, the integrated enzymatic and acid hydrolysis of the by-product becomes a promising technological route to produce monomeric sugars for bioethanol or fine chemical production.
KeywordsKappaphycus alvarezii By-product Carrageenan Chemical composition Enzymatic and acid hydrolysis
Refractive Index Detector
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Filter paper units
High-performance liquid chromatography system
Reverse-phase column HYPERSIL C18
Variable of selectivity
FAPESP, CNPq, PROPe-UNESP, and Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científco da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da UNESP-PADC supported this work. We appreciate, also, the support of German Enrique Pesantez (Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering) by providing resources for the English revision of the paper.
Availability of Supporting Data
Supporting data used in the publication of this paper can be provided upon request.
EGSC and FRPC performed the chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis analyses of the samples, data interpretation, and review of the manuscript. VCG provided the experimental macroalgae strains and performed the field trials, data interpretation, and review of the manuscript. LEO, RM, SCO, and FM participated in the design of the study, data interpretation, mathematical modeling, and review of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
This work was supported by FAPESP (contract number 2014/05969-2), CNPq (contract number 440385/2014-8), PROPe—UNESP (contract number 506), and Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da UNESP-PADC (contract number 2013/19-1).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Ethical Approval and Consent to Participate
Consent for Publication
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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