Advertisement

A Demonstration of the Consistency of Maize Stover Pretreatment by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia from Bench to Pilot-Scale

  • Arun Athmanathan
  • Parisa Fallahi
  • Terry Lash
  • Sabrina Trupia
Article
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) is a means of pretreating biomass at moderate temperatures and ammonia concentrations (15% w/w). To establish process consistency and scalability, sieved maize stover was pretreated at 50-ml, 300-ml, and 100-l scales. Each scale was carried out through different methods. Sealed reactor tubes were used for 50-ml pretreatment. Fabric dyeing apparatus was used for the 300-ml pretreatment and a commercial Littleford DVT reactor was used for 100-l pretreatment. For each scale, biomass washing and solid-liquid separations were scaled appropriately. Washed pretreated solids were analyzed for composition and recovery of dry biomass and carbohydrates calculated. Nearly 100% of the glucan content was recovered in pretreated solids at all three scales, indicating the viability of SAA pretreatment. Pretreated solids (15% w/w) were hydrolyzed in a 1-l twin Sigma blade mixer using Cellic CTec2 (15 FPU.g-glucan−1) followed by fermentation in shake flasks. Hydrolytic yields ranged 65–70% across scale treatments. In comparison, fermentative yields averaged 95% across scale treatments, indicating saccharification to be a rate-limiting step in effective bioconversion of lignocellulose.

Keywords

Pretreatment Soaking in aqueous ammonia Scale-up Lignocellulose Maize stover Sigma mixer Cellulase Hydrolysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Lab and Engineering staff at NCERC for their invaluable support through the project, and Graduate Assistant Kimia Kajbaf for her assistance.

Funding Information

The study was funded by the Illinois Corn Growers Association (https://www.ilcorn.org/home).

References

  1. 1.
    Zhang X, Athmanathan A, Mosier NS (2016) Biochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. In: Kumar R, Balan V, Singh S (eds) Valorization of lignocellulosic biomass in a biorefinery, pp 79–142Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mosier NS, Wyman CE, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M, Ladisch M (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 96:673–686.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.06.025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yang B, Tao L, Wyman CE (2017) Strengths, challenges, and opportunities for hydrothermal pretreatment in lignocellulosic biorefineries. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 12:125–138.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.1825 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim TH, Gupta R, Lee YY (2009) Pretreatment of biomass by aqueous ammonia for bioethanol production. In: Mielenz JR (ed) Biofuels. Humana Press, Totowa, pp 79–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chundawat SPS, Bals B, Campbell T, Sousa L, Gao D, Jin M, Eranki P, Garlock R, Teymouri F, Balan V, Dale BE (2013) Primer on ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment. In: Wyman CE (ed) Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. Wiley, Chichester, pp 169–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang M, Rosentrater KA (2016) Comparison of sealing and open conditions for long term storage of corn stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia pretreatment method. Ind Crop Prod 91:377–381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.07.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoo CG, Lee CW, Kim TH (2011) Two-stage fractionation of corn stover using aqueous ammonia and hot water. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 164:729–740.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-011-9169-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim TH, Taylor F, Hicks KB (2008) Bioethanol production from barley hull using SAA (soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment. Bioresour Technol 99:5694–5702.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.10.055 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoo CG, Nghiem NP, Hicks KB, Kim TH (2013) Maximum production of fermentable sugars from barley straw using optimized soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169:2430–2441.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-013-0154-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ko JK, Bak JS, Jung MW, Lee HJ, Choi IG, Kim TH, Kim KH (2009) Ethanol production from rice straw using optimized aqueous-ammonia soaking pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes. Bioresour Technol 100:4374–4380.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2009.04.026 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ramirez RS, Holtzapple M, Piamonte N (2013) Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at high pH. In: Wyman CE (ed) Aqueous pretreatment of plant biomass for biological and chemical conversion to fuels and chemicals. Wiley, Chichester, pp 145–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li X, Kim TH (2011) Low-liquid pretreatment of corn stover with aqueous ammonia. Bioresour Technol 102:4779–4786.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.01.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Athmanathan A, Trupia S (2016) Examining the role of particle size on ammonia-based bioprocessing of maize stover. Biotechnol Prog 32:134–140.  https://doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2203 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim Y, Ximenes E, Mosier NS, Ladisch MR (2011) Soluble inhibitors/deactivators of cellulase enzymes from lignocellulosic biomass. Enzym Microb Technol 48:408–415.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2011.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Himmelsbach JN, Isci A, Raman DR, Anex RP (2009) Design and testing of a pilot-scale aqueous ammonia soaking biomass pretreatment system. Appl Eng Agric 25:953–959.  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.29224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nghiem NP, Senske GE, Kim TH (2016) Pretreatment of corn stover by low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) in a pilot-scale reactor and bioconversion to fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 179:1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-1982-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sarks C, Bals BD, Wynn J, Teymouri F, Schwegmann S, Sanders K, Jin M, Balan V, Dale BE (2016) Scaling up and benchmarking of ethanol production from pelletized pilot scale AFEX treated corn stover using Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Biofuels 7:253–262.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17597269.2015.1132368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Modenbach AA, Nokes SE (2012) The use of high-solids loadings in biomass pretreatment—a review. Biotechnol Bioeng 109:1430–1442.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.24464 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Galbe M, Sassner P, Wingren A, Zacchi G (2007) Process engineering economics of bioethanol production. In: Olsson L (ed) Biofuels. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 303–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Modenbach AA, Nokes SE (2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass at high-solids loadings. Biomass Bioenergy 56:526–544.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.05.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Samaniuk JR, Scott CT, Root TW, Klingenberg DJ (2011) The effect of high intensity mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of concentrated cellulose fiber suspensions. Bioresour Technol 102:4489–4494.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.11.117 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fockink DH, Urio MB, Chiarello LM, Sánchez JH, Ramos LP (2016) Principles and challenges involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials at high total solids. In: Soccol CR, Brar SK, Faulds C, Ramos LP (eds) Green fuels technology. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 147–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Du J, Zhang F, Li Y et al (2013) Enzymatic liquefaction and saccharification of pretreated corn stover at high-solids concentrations in a horizontal rotating bioreactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:173–181.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-013-0983-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ghorbanian M, Russ DC, Berson RE (2014) Mixing analysis of PCS slurries in a horizontal scraped surface bioreactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 37:2113–2119.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-014-1189-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Connelly RK, Kokini JL (2006) Mixing simulation of a viscous Newtonian liquid in a twin sigma blade mixer. AICHE J 52:3383–3393.  https://doi.org/10.1002/aic.10960 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Connelly RK, Kokini JL (2006) 3D numerical simulation of the flow of viscous Newtonian and shear thinning fluids in a twin sigma blade mixer. Adv Polym Technol 25:182–194.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adv.20071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mosier NS, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR (2005) Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:1986–1993.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.01.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sluiter A, Hames BR, Ruiz R et al (2012) Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass: laboratory analytical procedure (LAP), pp 1–18. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/gen/fy08/42621.pdf
  29. 29.
    ASABE (2012) Moisture measurement—forages, pp 1–3. https://elibrary.asabe.org/azdez.asp?JID=2&AID=41661&CID=s2000&T=2
  30. 30.
    Haldar D, Gayen K, Sen D (2018) Enumeration of monosugars’ inhibition characteristics on the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Process Biochem 72:130–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2018.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Olofsson K, Palmqvist B, Lidén G (2010) Improving simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of pretreated wheat straw using both enzyme and substrate feeding. Biotechnol Biofuels 3:17.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-3-17 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Westman JO, Wang R, Novy V, Franzén CJ (2017) Sustaining fermentation in high-gravity ethanol production by feeding yeast to a temperature-profiled multifeed simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of wheat straw. Biotechnol Biofuels 10:213.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-017-0893-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cannella D, Jorgensen H (2013) Do new cellulolytic enzyme preparations affect the industrial strategies for high solids lignocellulosic ethanol production? Biotechnol Bioeng 111:59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25098 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xu Y, Zhang M, Roozeboom K, Wang D (2018) Integrated bioethanol production to boost low-concentrated cellulosic ethanol without sacrificing ethanol yield. Bioresour Technol 250:299–305.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.11.056 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ghose TK (1987) Measurement of cellulase activities. Pure Appl Chem 59:257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim T, Lee YY (2007) Pretreatment of corn stover by soaking in aqueous ammonia at moderate temperatures. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 137-140:81–92CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li X, Kim TH, Nghiem NP (2010) Bioethanol production from corn stover using aqueous ammonia pretreatment and two-phase simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (TPSSF). Bioresour Technol 101:5910–5916.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yoo CG, Nghiem NP, Hicks KB, Kim TH (2011) Pretreatment of corn stover using low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process. Bioresour Technol 102:10028–10034.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.057 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yanjun L, Ute MB, Sabine S et al (2014) Optimization of ammonia pretreatment of wheat straw for biogas production. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 90:130–138.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.4297 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Klein-Marcuschamer D, Oleskowicz-Popiel P, Simmons BA, Blanch HW (2011) The challenge of enzyme cost in the production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Biotechnol Bioeng 109:1083–1087.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.24370 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lynd LR, Liang X, Biddy MJ, Allee A, Cai H, Foust T, Himmel ME, Laser MS, Wang M, Wyman CE (2017) Cellulosic ethanol: status and innovation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 45:202–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2017.03.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jung YH, Park HM, Kim DH et al (2017) Fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of high solids pretreated lignocellulose for obtaining high titers and high yields of glucose. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 182:1108–1120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-016-2385-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bals BD, Gunawan C, Moore J, Teymouri F, Dale BE (2013) Enzymatic hydrolysis of pelletized AFEX™-treated corn stover at high solid loadings. Biotechnol Bioeng 111:264–271.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.25022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gao Y, Xu J, Yuan Z, Zhang Y, Liu Y, Liang C (2014) Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production. Bioresour Technol 167:41–45.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.05.034 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ramos LP, da Silva L, Ballem AC, Pitarelo AP, Chiarello LM, Silveira MHL (2015) Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using high total solids and low enzyme loadings. Bioresour Technol 175:195–202.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2014.10.087 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Geng W, Jin Y, Jameel H, Park S (2015) Strategies to achieve high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Bioresour Technol 187:43–48.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.067 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Liu K, Atiyeh HK, Pardo-Planas O, Ezeji TC, Ujor V, Overton JC, Berning K, Wilkins MR, Tanner RS (2015) Butanol production from hydrothermolysis-pretreated switchgrass: quantification of inhibitors and detoxification of hydrolyzate. Bioresour Technol 189:292–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.04.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jorgensen H, Kristensen JB, Felby C (2007) Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars: challenges and opportunities. Biofuels Bioprod Biorefin 1:119–134.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang W, Zhuang X, Yuan Z, Yu Q, Qi W, Wang Q, Tan X (2012) High consistency enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum bagasse pretreated with liquid hot water. Bioresour Technol 108:252–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2011.12.092 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yang D, Parlange J-Y, Walker LP (2014) Cellulases significantly alter the nano-scale reaction space for pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. Ind Biotechnol 10:395–403.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ind.2014.0028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arun Athmanathan
    • 1
  • Parisa Fallahi
    • 1
  • Terry Lash
    • 1
  • Sabrina Trupia
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.National Corn-to-Ethanol Research CenterSouthern Illinois UniversityEdwardsvilleUSA
  2. 2.AB BiotekSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations