Identifying Morphological and Mechanical Traits Associated with Stem Lodging in Bioenergy Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
- 606 Downloads
Stem lodging in Sorghum is a major agronomic problem that has far-reaching economic consequences. More rapid and reliable advances in stem lodging resistance could be achieved through development of selective breeding tools that are not dependent on post hoc data or dependent on abiotic or biotic environmental factors. Our objective was to use sorghum to examine how mechanical stability is achieved and lost, and to provide insights into the development of a rapid and reliable phenotyping approach. The biomechanical properties of the stems of six bioenergy sorghum genotypes were investigated using a three-point bending test protocol. Important morphometric data were also collected, and previously collected lodging scores were used to associate with morphological and mechanical traits. Nodes were two to three-folds stronger, stiffer, and more rigid than internodes. In general, internodes were numerically weakest and more rigid between internodes 3 and 6, corresponding to the area where higher stem lodging is observed. Internode strength was negatively correlated with diameter (r = −0.77, P < 0.05) and volume (r = 0.96, P < 0.01), while stem lodging was positively correlated with flexural rigidity (r = 0.85, P < 0.05) and volume (r = 0.78, P < 0.05). The analysis revealed key functional traits that influence the mode and location of stem lodging. Moreover, these results indicate the potential of these methods as a selective breeding tool for indirect selection of stem lodging resistance in bioenergy sorghum.
KeywordsBioenergy sorghum Biomechanical properties Stem lodging Three-point bending test
The authors are thankful to the Texas A&M University Louis Stokes Bridge to Doctorate Fellowship VII Award (No. 1249272) for a graduate fellowship and financial support granted to F.G. The authors would like to thank Dr. K. Rajagopal for his academic support, Stephen Labar for building the three-point bending test used in this study, and Ceres Corp. for kindly providing seed source and lodging information for some of the genotypes used in this study. The authors would also like to thank all the student workers at the Texas A&M Sorghum Breeding Program for their help phenotyping. We are grateful to the Editor, Antje Herrmann, and two other anonymous reviewers for their comments on this manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 4.Wang X, Keplinger T, Gierlinger N, Burgert I (2014) Plant material features responsible for bamboo’s excellent mechanical performance: a comparison of tensile properties of bamboo and spruce at the tissue, fibre and cell wall levels. Ann Bot 114(8):1627–1635. doi: 10.1093/aob/mcu180 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 7.Niklas KJ (1992) Plant biomechanics: an engineering approach to plant form and function. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- 9.Tvd W, Alvim Kamei CL, Torres AF, Vermerris W, Dolstra O, Visser RGF, Trindade LM (2013) The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production. Front Plant Sci 4:107Google Scholar
- 23.TERRA (2015) Financial assistance funding opportunity announcement no. DE-FOA-0001211. Technical report. Advanced Research Projects Agency—Energy, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- 30.Rosenow D, Clark L Drought and lodging resistance for a quality sorghum crop. Proceedings of the 5th annual corn and sorghum industry research conference (Chicago, IL, 6–7 December 1995), American Seed Trade Association, Chicago, ate 1995. pp 82–97Google Scholar
- 35.Lemloh M-L, Pohl A, Weber E, Zeiger M, Bauer P, Weiss IM, Schneider AS (2014) Structure-property relationships in mechanically stimulated Sorghum bicolor stalks. Bioinspir Mat 1(1)Google Scholar
- 39.Vanderlip R (1993) How a sorghum plant develops. Kansas State University, ManhattanGoogle Scholar
- 43.Gere J, Timoshenko S (1984) Mechanics of materials. Wadsworth, Belmont, pp 351–355Google Scholar
- 46.Rowe NP, Isnard S, Gallenmüller F, Speck T (2006) Diversity of mechanical architectures in climbing plants: an ecological perspective. Ecology and biomechanics: a mechanical approach to the ecology of animals and plants. CRC, p 35–59Google Scholar
- 49.JMP® 12 Fitting Linear Models (2015). 12 edn. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- 63.Vogel S (2013) Comparative biomechanics: life’s physical world. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
- 64.Sleper DA, Poehlman JM (2006) Breeding field crops, 5th edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar