BioEnergy Research

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 670–680 | Cite as

Single-Phase and Two-Phase Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Residues from the Treatment Process of Waste Vegetable Oil and Pig Manure

  • Dolores Hidalgo
  • Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín
  • Emilia Sastre


The co-digestion of residues from the pre-treatment process of waste vegetable oil (OW) and pig manure (PM) was performed under different OW/PM feed ratios (1:0, 1:1 and 1:3 v/v) and at organic loading rates ranging from 0.25 to 3.1 kg VS m−3 day−1 in lab-scale single-phase (SP) and two-phase (TP) systems. From the experiments, it was observed that digestion of OW alone was inhibitory for the anaerobic degradation. Mixing OW with PM neutralized the negative effects of lipids accumulation and high VS removal efficiencies were realized in both systems (63 and 71 % in SP system and 69 and 72 % in TP system, at 1:1 and 1:3 OW/PM mixtures, respectively). Under the same operational conditions, the methane yield was 0.30 and 0.22 m3 CH4 kg−1 VS removed for the SP anaerobic digester and 0.30 and 0.27 m3 CH4 kg−1 VS removed for the TP configuration. Additionally, TP digestion presented more stable operation and higher treatment capacity.


Co-digestion Pig manure Single-phase anaerobic digestion Two-phase anaerobic digestion Waste vegetable oil 



The authors gratefully acknowledge support of this work by the LIFE + Program under the responsibility of the Directorate General for the Environment of the European Commission through the agreement LIFE 09 ENV/E/000451-VALUVOIL project.

Supplementary material

12155_2013_9396_MOESM1_ESM.docx (88 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 88 kb)


  1. 1.
    Ahrin BK (2003) Perspectives for anaerobic digestion. In: Ahring BK (ed) Biomethanation I, vol 81, Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology. Sringer, Berlin, pp 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Public Health Association (APHA) (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. APHA, Washington DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Angelidaki I, Ahring BK, Deng H, Schmidt JE (2002) Anaerobic digestion of olive mill effluents together with swine manure in USAB reactors. Water Sci Technol 45(10):213–218Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Appels L, Lauwers J, Degrève J, Helsen L, Lievens B, Willems K, Van Impe J, Dewil R (2011) Anaerobic digestion in global bio-energy production: potential and research challenges. Renew Sust Energy Rev 15(9):4295–4301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cirne D, Paloumet X, Björnsson L, Alves M, Mattiassona B (2007) Anaerobic digestion of lipid-rich waste—effects of lipid concentration. Renew Energy 32:965–975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen Y, Cheng JJ, Creamer KS (2008) Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process: a review. Bioresour Technol 99:4044–4064PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chhetri AB, Tango MS, Budge SM, Islam MR (2008) Non-edible plant oils as new sources for biodiesel production. Internat J Mol Sci 9:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de Lemos CA (2007) Anaerobic reactors: biological wastewater treatment Vol 4. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    EU (2006) Biofuels in the European Union—a vision for 2030 and beyond. Report of the Biofuel Research Advisory Council.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fernández A, Sánchez A, Font X (2005) Anaerobic co-digestion of a simulated organic fraction of municipal solid wastes and fats of animal and vegetable origin. Biochem Eng J 26:22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferreira L, Duarte E, Figueiredo D (2012) Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production—a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm. Bioresour Technol 116:285–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fetzer S, Bak F, Conrad R (1993) Sensitivity of methanogenic bacteria from paddy soil to oxygen and desiccation. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 12(2):107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gelegenis J, Georgakakis D, Angelidaki I, Christopoulou N, Goumenaki M (2007) Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater by codigesting with diluted poultry-manure. Appl Energy 84(6):646–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Göblös S, Portörö P, Bordás D, Kálmán M, Kiss I (2008) Comparison of the effectivities of two-phase and single-phase anaerobic sequencing batch reactors during dairy wastewater treatment. Renew Energy 33(5):960–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hidalgo D, Sastre E, Gómez M, Nieto P (2013) Evaluation of pre-treatment processes for increasing biodegradability of agro-food wastes. Environ Technol 33(13):1497–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hong V (2011) Anaerobic digestion of oil-rich solid waste. J Biotechnol 9(1):45–53Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ince O (1998) Performance of a two-phase anaerobic digestion system when treating dairy wastewater. Water Res 32(9):2707–2713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kulkarni MG, Dalai AK (2006) Waste cooking oil—an economical source for biodiesel: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 45:2901–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lesteur M, Bellon-Maurel V, Gonzalez C, Latrille E, Roger JM, Junqua G, Steyer JP (2010) Alternative methods for determining anaerobic biodegradability: a review. Process Biochem 45:431–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mobarak-Qamsari E, Kasra-Kermanshahi R, Nosrati M, Amani T (2012) Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of high fat content dairy wastewater as a pretreatment for anaerobic digestion. Int J Environ Res 6(2):475–480Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nasr N, Elbeshbishy E, Hafez H, Nakhla G, Hesham El Naggar M (2012) Comparative assessment of single-stage and two-stage anaerobic digestion for the treatment of thin stillage. Bioresour Technol 111:122–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neves L, Pereira M, Mota M, Alves M (2009) Detection and quantification of long chain fatty acids in liquid and solid samples and its relevance to understand anaerobic digestion of lipids. Bioresour Technol 100(1):91–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Palatsi J, Laureni M, Andrés MV, Flotats X, Nielsen HB, Angelidaki I (2009) Strategies for recovering inhibition caused by long chain fatty acids on anaerobic thermophilic biogas reactors. Bioresour Technol 100:4588–4596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Park Y, Hong F, Cheon J, Hidaka T, Tsuno H (2008) Comparison of thermophilic anaerobic digestion characteristics between single-phase and two-phase systems for kitchen garbage treatment. J Biosci Cioeng 105(1):48–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pastor L, Ruiz L, Pascual A, Ruiz B (2013) Co-digestion of used oils and urban landfill leachates with sewage sludge and the effect on the biogas production. Appl Energy 107:438–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pereira MA, Pires OC, Mota M, Alves MM (2005) Anaerobic biodegradation of oleic and palmitic acids: evidence of mass transfer limitations caused by long chain fatty acid accumulation onto the anaerobic sludge. Biotech Bioeng 92(1):15–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salminen E, Rintala J, Lokshina L, Vavilin VA (2000) Anaerobic batch degradation of solid poultry slaughterhouse waste. Water Sci Technol 41:33–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shen F, Yuan H, Pang Y, Chen S, Zhu B, Zou D, Liu Y, Mac J, Yu L, Li X (2013) Performances of anaerobic co-digestion of fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW): single-phase vs. two-phase. Bioresour Technol 144:80–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Solera R, Romero LI, Sales D (2002) The evolution of biomass in a two-phase anaerobic treatment process during start-up. Chem Biochem Eng Q 16(1):25–29Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Torrijos M, Thalla A, Sousbie P, Bosque F, Delgenès JP (2008) Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions. Wat Sci Technol 58(9):1871–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wust E (2003) Single-phase and two-phase cheese wastewater treatment by anaerobic SBRs. Ph.D. thesis, Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Department, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu HW, Samani Z, Hanson A, Smith G (2002) Energy recovery from grass using two-phase anaerobic digestion. Waste Manag 22:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang L, Lee YW, Jahng D (2011) Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and piggery wastewater: focusing on the role of trace elements. Bioresour Technol 102(8):5048–5059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dolores Hidalgo
    • 1
  • Jesús M. Martín-Marroquín
    • 1
  • Emilia Sastre
    • 1
  1. 1.CARTIF Technology CentreBoecilloSpain

Personalised recommendations