BioEnergy Research

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 533–546

Yield and Woody Biomass Traits of Novel Shrub Willow Hybrids at Two Contrasting Sites

  • Michelle J. Serapiglia
  • Kimberly D. Cameron
  • Arthur J. Stipanovic
  • Lawrence P. Abrahamson
  • Timothy A. Volk
  • Lawrence B. Smart
Article

Abstract

Shrub willow has great potential as a dedicated bioenergy crop, but commercialization and adoption by growers and end-users will depend upon the identification and selection of high-yielding cultivars with biomass chemistry and quality amenable to conversion to biofuels and bioenergy. In this study, critical traits for biomass production were evaluated among new genotypes of shrub willow produced through hybrid breeding. This study assessed the variation in yield, pest and disease resistance, biomass composition, and wood density in shrub willow, as well as the impact of genotypic and environmental factors on these particular phenotypes. Analysis of clonal genotypes established on two contrasting sites in New York State, Tully and Belleville, showed statistical differences by site for all of the traits. The greatest yield was observed at Belleville, NY, for two cultivars, ‘Fish Creek’ (41 Mg ha−1) and ‘Onondaga’ (40 Mg ha−1). Yields of Salix eriocephala genotypes were lowest, and they displayed susceptibility to rust and beetle damage. Variation in cellulose content in the stem biomass was controlled by environmental factors, with the majority of the genotypes displaying greater cellulose content at Belleville compared with Tully. In contrast, wood density was significantly greater at Tully than Belleville, and cellulose content was correlated with wood density. There were no significant correlations between biomass yield and density or any of the composition traits. These trials demonstrate that new genotypes produce improved yield and pest and disease resistance, with diverse compositional traits that can be matched with conversion technologies.

Keywords

Beetle damage Bioenergy Breeding Cellulose Melampsora rust Wood density 

Supplementary material

12155_2012_9272_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplemental Table 1(DOCX 13 kb)
12155_2012_9272_MOESM2_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplemental Table 2(DOCX 14 kb)
12155_2012_9272_MOESM3_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplemental Table 3(DOCX 14 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Christersson L, Sennerby-Forsse L (1994) The Swedish programme for intensive short rotation forests. Biomass Bioenerg 6:145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Larsson S (1998) Genetic improvement of willow for short-rotation coppice. Biomass Bioenerg 15:23–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindegaard KN, Barker JHA (1997) Breeding willows for biomass. Aspects Appl Biol 49:155–162Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Volk TA, Verwijst T, Tharakan PJ, Abrahamson LP, White EH (2004) Growing fuel: a sustainability assessment of willow biomass crop. Front Ecol Eviron 2:411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin J, Gibbs JP, Smart LB (2009) Population genetic structure of native versus naturalized sympatric shrub willows (Salix; Salicaceae). Am J Bot 96:771–785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Volk TA, Abrahamson LP, Nowak CA, Smart LB, Tharakan PJ, White EH (2006) The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry, and phytoremediation. Biomass Bioenerg 30:715–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smart LB, Volk TA, Lin J, Kopp RF, Phillips IS, Cameron KD et al (2005) Genetic improvement of shrub willow (Salix spp.) crops for bioenergy and environmental applications in the United States. Unasylva 221:51–55Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smart LB, Cameron KD (2008) Genetic improvement of willow (Salix spp.) as a dedicated energy crop. In: Vermerris WE (ed) Genetic improvement of bioenergy crops. Springer Science, New York, pp 347–376Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Studer MH, DeMartini JD, Davis MF, Sykes RW, Davison B, Keller M et al (2011) Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA. doi:10.1073/pnas1009252108
  10. 10.
    Serapiglia MJ, Cameron KD, Stipanovic AJ, Smart LB (2009) Analysis of biomass composition using high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis and percent bark content as tools for the selection of shrub willow bioenergy crop varieties. Bioenergy Res 2:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Serapiglia MJ, Cameron KD, Stipanovic AJ, Smart LB (2008) High-resolution thermogravimetric analysis for rapid characterization of biomass composition and selection of shrub willow varieties. Appl Biochem Biotech 145:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Serapiglia MJ, Cameron KD, Stipanovic AJ, Smart LB (2012) Correlations of expression of cell wall biosynthesis genes with variation in biomass composition in shrub willow (Salix spp.) biomass crops. Tree Genet Genomes 8:775–788Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mellerowicz E, Baucher M, Sundberg B, Boerjan W (2001) Unravelling cell wall formation in the woody dicot stem. Plant Mol Bol 47:239–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pitre FE, Cooke JEK, Mackay JJ (2007) Short-term effects of nitrogen availability on wood formation and fibre properties in hybrid poplar. Trees 21:249–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pitre FE, Lafarguette F, Boyle B, Pavy N, Caron S, Dallaire N et al (2010) High nitrogen fertilization and stem leaning have overlapping effects on wood formation in poplar but invoke largely distinct molecular pathways. Tree Physiol 30:1273–1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luo Z-B, Langenfeld-Heyser R, Calfapietra C, Polle A (2005) Influence of free air CO2 enrichment (EUROFACE) and nitrogen fertilisation on the anatomy of juvenile wood of three poplar species after coppicing. Trees 19:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pliura A, Yu Q, Zhang SY, MacKay J, Perinet P, Bousquet J (2005) Variation in wood density and shrinkage and their relationship to growth of selected young poplar hybrid clones. Forest Sci 51:472–482Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kord B, Samdaliri M (2011) The impact of site index on wood density and fiber biometry of Populus deltoides clones. World Appl Sci J 12:716–719Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pliura A, Zhang SY, MacKay J, Bousquet J (2007) Genotypic variation in wood density and growth traits of poplar hybrids at four clonal trials. Forest Ecol Manag 238:92–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Novaes E, Kirst M, Winter-Sederoff H, Sederoff R (2010) Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees. Plant Physiol 154:555–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Novaes E, Osorio L, Drost DR, Miles BL, Boaventura-Novaes CR, Benedict C et al (2009) Quantitative genetic analysis of biomass and wood chemistry of Populus under different nitrogen levels. New Phytol 182:878–890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fahmi R, Bridgwater AV, Donnison I, Yates N, Jones JM (2008) The effect of lignin and inorganic species in biomass on pyrolysis oil yields, quality and stability. Fuel 87:1230–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Demirbas A (2000) Effect of lignin content on aqueous liquefaction products of biomass. Energ Convers Manage 41:1601–1607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oren R, Ellsworth DS, Johnsen KH, Phillips N, Ewers BE, Maier C et al (2001) Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere. Nature 411:469–472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Smith JA, Blanchette RA, Newcombe G (2004) Molecular and morphological characterization of the willow rust fungus, Melampsora epitea, from arctic and temperate hosts in North America. Mycologia 96:1330–1338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pei MH, Royle DJ, Hunter T (1993) Identity and host alternation of some willow rusts (Melampsora spp.) in England. Mycol Res 97:845–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pei MH, Royle DJ, Hunter T (1999) Hybridization in larch-alternating Melampsora epitea (M. larici-epitea). Mycol Res 103:1440–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ziller W (1974) The tree rusts of Canada. Environment Canada Forestry Service, Ottawa, ON, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dawson WM, McCracken AR (1994) Effect of Melampsora rust on the growth and development of Salix burjatica korso in Northern Ireland. Eur J Forest Pathol 24(1):32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kendall DA, Hunter T, Arnold GM, Liggitt J, Morris T, Wiltshire CW (1996) Susceptibility of willow clones (Salix spp) to herbivory by Phyllodecta vulgatissima (L) and Galerucella lineola (Fab) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). Ann Appl Biol 129:379–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kendall DA, Wiltshire CW (1998) Life-cycles and ecology of willow beetles on Salix viminalis in England. Eur J Forest Pathol 28:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bjorkman C, Hoglund S, Eklund K, Larsson S (2000) Effects of leaf beetle damage on stem wood production in coppicing willow. Agric For Entomol 2:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nordman EE, Robison DJ, Abrahamson LP, Volk TA (2005) Relative resistance of willow and poplar biomass production clones across a continuum of herbivorous insect specialization: univariate and multivariate approaches. Forest Ecol Manag 217:307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Albrectsen BR, Gutierrez L, Fritz RS, Fritz RD, Orians CM (2007) Does the differential seedling mortality caused by slugs alter the foliar traits and subsequent susceptibility of hybrid willows to a generalist herbivore? Ecol Entomol 32(2):211–220Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kopp RF, Smart LB, Maynard CA, Isebrands JG, Tuskan GA, Abrahamson LP (2001) The development of improved willow clones for eastern North America. Forest Chron 77:287–292Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    USDA (2009) Soil Survey Staff, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Web Soil Survey. Available online at http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/ accessed 10-6-09
  37. 37.
    McDowell L (1981) Soil survey of Jefferson County, New York. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Cornell University Agricultural Experiment StationGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    TAPPI Standard T 258 om-06 (2006) Basic density and moisture content of pulpwood. In: TAPPI Test Methods 2006. TAPPI Press, Technology Park, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    McCracken AR, Dawson M (1992) Clonal response in Salix to Melampsora rusts in short rotation coppice plantations. Eur J Forest Pathol 22:19–28Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    SAS Institute Inc. SAS 9.1.3 Help and documentation. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc., 2000–2004Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Volk TA, Abrahamson LP, Cameron KD, Castellano P, Corbin T, Fabio E et al (2011) Yields of willow biomass crops across a range of sites in North America. Aspects Appl Biol 112:67–74Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roche BM, Fritz RS (1998) Effects of host plant hybridization on resistance to willow leaf rust caused by Melampsora sp. Eur J Forest Pathol 28:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fritz RS, Nichols-Orians CM, Brunsfeld SJ (1994) Interspecific hybridization of plants and resistance to herbivores: hypotheses, genetics, and variable responses in a diverse herbivore community. Oecologia 97:106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pei MH, Lindegaard K, Ruiz C, Bayon C (2008) Rust resistance of some varieties and recently bred genotypes of biomass willows. Biomass Bioenerg 32:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Karp A, Hanley S, Trybush S, Macalpine W, Pei MH, Shield I (2011) Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels. J Integr Plant Biol 53:151–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pei MH, Shield I, Macalpine W, Lindegaard KN, Bayon C, Karp A (2010) Mendelian inheritance of rust resistance to Melampsora larici-epitea in crosses between Salix sachalinensis and S. viminalis. Plant Pathol 59:862–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bayon C, Pei MH, Ruiz C, Hunter T, Karp A (2009) Genetic structure and population dynamics of a heteroecious plant pathogen Melampsora larici-epitea in short-rotation coppice willow plantations. Mol Ecol 18:3006–3019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Pei MH, Royle DJ, Hunter T (1996) Pathogenic specialisation of Melampsora epitea var. epitea on Salix. Plant Pathol 45:679–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cameron KD, Phillips IS, Kopp RF, Volk TA, Maynard CA, Abrahamson LP et al (2008) Quantitative genetics of traits indicative of biomass production and heterosis in 34 full-sib F1 Salix eriocephala families. Bioenergy Res 1:80–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hanley S, Pei M, Powers S, Ruiz C, Mallott M, Barker J et al (2011) Genetic mapping of rust resistance loci in biomass willow. Tree Genet Genomes 7:597–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Orians CM, Huang C, Wild A, Zee P, Dao MTT, Fritz RS (1997) Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivorous beetles. Entomol Exp Appl 83:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lehrman A, Torp M, Stenberg JA, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Björkman C (2012) Estimating direct resistance in willows against a major insect pest, Phratora vulgatissima, by comparing life history traits. Entomol Exp Appl 144:93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Serapiglia MJ (2009) Variation in biomass composition and regulation of lignocellulosic deposition in shrub willow (Salix spp.) bioenergy crops. Dissertation, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NYGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blankenhorn PR, Bowersox TW, Kuklewski KM, Stimely GL, Murphey WK (1985) Comparison of selected fuel and chemical content values for seven Populus hybrid clones. Wood Fiber Sci 17:148–158Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sticklen M (2006) Plant genetic engineering to improve biomass characteristics for biofuels. Curr Opin Biotechnol 17:315–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chen F, Dixon RA (2007) Lignin modification improves fermentable sugar yields for biofuel production. Nature Biotech 25:759–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kaeiser M (1955) Frequency and distribution of gelatinous fibers in eastern cottonwood. Am J Bot 42:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Isebrands JG, Bensand DW (1972) Incidence and structure of gelatinous fibers within rapid-growing Eastern cottonwood. Wood Fiber Sci 4:61–71Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Adler A, Dimitriou I, Aronsson P, Verwijst T, Weih M (2008) Wood fuel quality of two Salix viminalis stands fertilised with sludge, ash and sludge-ash mixtures. Biomass Bioenerg 32:914–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lehtikangas P (2001) Quality properties of pelletised sawdust, logging residues and bark. Biomass Bioenerg 20:351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tharakan PJ, Volk TA, Abrahamson LP, White EH (2003) Energy feedstock characterizations of willow and hybrid poplar clones at harvest age. Biomass Bioenerg 25:571–580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Adler A, Verwijst T, Aronsson P (2005) Estimation and relevance of bark proportion in a willow stand. Biomass Bioenerg 29:102–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Blankenhorn PR, Bowersox TW, Strauss CH, Kessler K, Stover LR, Di-Cola ML (1992) Chemical composition of second rotation of Populus hybrid NE-388. Wood Fiber Sci 24:280–286Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beaudoin M, Hernandez RE, Koubaa A, Poliquin J (1992) Interclonal, intraclonal and within-tree variation in wood density of poplar hybrid clones. Wood Fiber Sci 24:147–153Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cato S, McMillan L, Donaldson L, Richardson T, Echt C, Gardner R (2006) Wood formation from the base to the crown in Pinus radiata: gradients of tracheid wall thickness, wood density, radial growth rate and gene expression. Plant Mol Bol 60:565–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jacobson AL, Pratt RB, Ewers FW, Davis SD (2005) Do xylem fibers affect vessel cavitation resistance? Plant Physiol 139:546–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Martinez-Cabrera HI, Jones CS, Espino S, Schenk HJ (2009) Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects. Am J Bot 96:1388–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tharakan PJ, Volk TA, Nowak CA, Abrahamson LP (2005) Morphological traits of 30 willow clones and their relationship to biomass production. Can J Forest Res 35:421–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hoffmann WA, Marchin RM, Abit P, Lau OL (2011) Hyrdaulic failure and tree dieback associated with high wood density in a temperate forest under extreme drought. Glob Change Biol 17:2731–2742CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle J. Serapiglia
    • 1
  • Kimberly D. Cameron
    • 1
    • 5
  • Arthur J. Stipanovic
    • 2
  • Lawrence P. Abrahamson
    • 3
    • 4
  • Timothy A. Volk
    • 4
  • Lawrence B. Smart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureCornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment StationGenevaUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryState University of New York College of Environmental Science and ForestrySyracuseUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental and Forest BiologyState University of New York College of Environmental Science and ForestrySyracuseUSA
  4. 4.Department of Forest and Natural Resources ManagementState University of New York College of Environmental Science and ForestrySyracuseUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyState University of New YorkCortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations