BioEnergy Research

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 1043–1066 | Cite as

Pretreatment and Lignocellulosic Chemistry

Article

Abstract

Lignocellulosic materials such as wood, grass, and agricultural and forest residues are promising alternative energy resources that can be utilized to produce ethanol. The yield of ethanol production from native lignocellulosic material is relatively low due to its native recalcitrance, which is attributed to, in part, lignin content/structure, hemicelluloses, cellulose crystallinity, and other factors. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials is required to overcome this recalcitrance. The goal of pretreatment is to alter the physical features and chemical composition/structure of lignocellulosic materials, thus making cellulose more accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis for sugar conversion. Various pretreatment technologies to reduce recalcitrance and to increase sugar yield have been developed during the past two decades. This review examines the changes in lignocellulosic structure primarily in cellulose and hemicellulose during the most commonly applied pretreatment technologies including dilute acid pretreatment, hydrothermal pretreatment, and alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords

Cellulose Hemicellulose Lignocellulosics Pretreatment Recalcitrance 

Abbreviations

DAP

Dilute acid pretreatment

DP

Degree of polymerization

LCC

Lignin–carbohydrate complex

CS

Combined severity

LODP

Leveling-off degree of polymerization

CP

Cross-polarization

MAS

Magnetic angle spin

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance

HMF

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

LHW

Liquid hot water

AFEX

Ammonia fiber explosion

ARP

Ammonia recycled percolation

References

  1. 1.
    Himmel ME, Ding SY, Johnson DK, Adney WS, Nimlos MR, Brady JW et al (2007) Biomass recalcitrance: engineering plants and enzymes for biofuels production. Science 315:804–807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ragauskas AJ, Williams CK, Davison BH, Britovsek G, Cairney J, Eckert CA et al (2006) The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials. Science 311:484–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bothast RJ, Schlicher MA (2005) Biotechnological processes for conversion of corn into ethanol. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67:19–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gray KA (2007) Cellulosic ethanol—state of the technology. Int Sugar J 109:150–151Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marchetti JM, Miguel VU, Errazu AF (2007) Possible methods for biodiesel production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 11:1300–1311Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Perlack R, Wright LL, Turhollow AF, Graham RL, Stokes BJ and Erbach DC (2005) Biomass as feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. http://feedstockreview.ornl.gov/pdf/billion_ton_vision.pdf Accessed 04 October 2011
  7. 7.
    Zhang YH (2008) Reviving the carbohydrate economy via multi-product lignocellulosics biorefineries. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35:367–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sierra R, Smith A, Granda C, Holtzapple MT (2008) Producing fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. Chem Eng Prog 104:S10–S18Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mosier N, Wyman C, Dale B, Elander R, Lee YY, Holtzapple M et al (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 96:673–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun Y, Cheng J (2002) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review. Bioresour Technol 83:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pu Y, Zhang D, Singh PM, Ragauskas AJ (2008) The new forestry biofuels sector. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 2:58–73Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Saha BC (2003) Hemicellulose bioconversion. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 30:279–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sannigrahi P, Ragauskas AJ, Tuskan GA (2010) Poplar as a feedstock for biofuels: a review of compositional characteristics. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 4:209–226Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hodgson EM, Nowakowski DJ, Shield I, Riche A, Bridgwater AV, Clifton-Brown JC et al (2011) Variation in Miscanthus chemical composition and implications for conversion by pyrolysis and thermo-chemical bio-refining for fuels and chemicals. Bioresour Technol 102:3411–3418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Silva GGD, Rouau SGX (2011) Successive centrifugal grinding and sieving of wheat straw. Powder Technol 208:266–270Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sun JX, Mao FC, Sun XF, Sun R (2005) Comparative study of hemicelluloses isolated with alkaline peroxide from lignocellulosic materials. J Wood Chem Technol 24:239–262Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Silverstein RA, Chen Y, Sharma-Shivappa RR, Boyette MD, Osborne J (2007) A comparison of chemical pretreatment methods for improving saccharification of cotton stalks. Bioresour Technol 98:3000–3011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nishiyama Y, Langan P, Chanzy H (2002) Crystal structure and hydrogen-bonding system in cellulose Iβ from synchrotron X-ray and neutron fiber diffraction. J Am Chem Soc 124:9074–9082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larsson T, Hult E, Wickholm K, Pettersson E, Iversen T (1999) CP/MAS 13C NMR spectroscopy applied to structure and interaction studies on cellulose I. Solid State Nucl Magn Reson 15:31–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stephens C, Whitmore P, Morris H, Bier M (2008) Hydrolysis of the amorphous cellulose in cotton-based paper. Biomacromolecules 9:1093–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hallac BB, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Analyzing cellulose degree of polymerization and its relevancy to cellulosic ethanol. Biofuels Bioprod Bioref 5:215–225Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Aspinall GO (1980) Chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides. In: Preiss J (ed) The biochemistry of plants (a comprehensive treatise), vol 3. Carbohydrates: structure and function. Academic, New York, pp 473–500Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klinke HB, Thomsen AB, Ahring BK (2004) Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 66:10–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Laureano-Perez L, Teymouri F, Alizadeh H, Dale BE (2005) Understanding factors that limit enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121:1081–1099PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balan V, Sousa LD, Chundawat SPS, Marshall D, Sharma LN, Chambliss CK et al (2009) Enzymatic digestibility and pretreatment degradation products of AFEX-treated hardwoods (Populus nigra). Biotechnol Prog 25:365–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lynd LR (1996) Overview and evaluation of fuel ethanol from cellulosic biomass: technology, economics, the environment, and policy. Annu Rev Energy Environ 21:403–465Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lynd LR, Elander RT, Wyman CE (1996) Likely features and costs of mature biomass ethanol technology. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57/58:741–761Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mooney CA, Mansfield SD, Touhy MG, Saddler JN (1998) The effect of initial pore volume and lignin content on the enzymic hydrolysis of softwoods. Bioresour Technol 64:113–119Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kristensen JB, Boerjesson J, Bruun MH, Tjerneld F, Jorgensen H (2007) Use of surface active additives in enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw lignocellulosics. Enzyme Microb Technol 40:888–895Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yang B, Wyman CE (2006) BSA treatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in lignin containing substrates. Biotechnol Bioeng 94:611–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chundawat SPS, Beckham GT, Himmel ME, Dale BE (2011) Deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Annu Rev Chem Biomol Eng 2:121–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Balakshin M, Capanema E, Gracz H, Chang HM, Jameel H (2011) Quantification of lignin–carbohydrate linkages with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Planta 233:1097–1110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hatfield RD, Ralph J, Grabber JH (1999) Cell wall cross-linking by ferulates and diferulates in grasses. J Sci Food Agric 79:403–407Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hendriks AT, Zeeman G (2009) Pretreatments to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 100:10–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zeng M, Mosier NS, Huang CP, Sherman DM, Ladisch MR (2007) Microscopic examination of changes of plant cell structure in corn stover due to hot water pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biotechnol Bioeng 97:265–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Segal L, Creely JJ, Martin AE Jr, Conrad CM (1959) An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Text Res J 29:786–794Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Park S, Baker JO, Himmel ME, Parilla PA, Johnson DK (2010) Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance. Biotechnol Biofuels 3:10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Larsson PT, Westermark U, Iversen T (1995) Determination of the cellulose I alpha allomorph content in a tunicate cellulose by CP/MAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Carbohydr Res 278:339–343Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang YHP, Lynd LR (2004) Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: noncomplexed cellulase systems. Biotechnol Bioeng 88:797–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sannigrahi P, Miller SJ, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Effects of organosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis on cellulose structure and crystallinity in Loblolly pine. Carbohydr Res 345:965–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhu L, O’Dwyer JP, Chang VS, Granda CB, Holtzapple MT (2008) Structural features affecting biomass enzymatic digestibility. Bioresour Technol 99:3817–3828PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshida M, Liu Y, Uchida S, Kawarada K, Ukagami Y, Ichinose H et al (2008) Effects of cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulose, and lignin on the enzymatic hydrolysis of Miscanthus sinensis to monosaccharides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:805–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mittal A, Katahira R, Himmel ME, Johnson DK (2011) Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol Biofuels 4:41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ioelovich M, Morag E (2011) Effect of cellulose structure on enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresources 6:2818–2835Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Puri VP (1984) Effect of crystallinity and degree of polymerization of cellulose on enzymatic saccharification. Biotechnol Bioeng 26:1219–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Grethlein HE (1985) The effect of pore-size distribution on the rate of enzymatic-hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates. Bio-Technol 3:155–160Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thompson DN, Chen HC, Grethlein HE (1992) Comparison of pretreatment methods on the basis of available surface-area. Bioresour Technol 39:155–163Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Weimer PJ, French AD, Calamari TA (1991) Differential fermentation of cellulose allomorphs by ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:3101–3106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ding SY, Himmel ME (2006) The maize primary cell wall microfibril: a new model derived from direct visualization. J Agric Food Chem 54:597–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chundawat SP, Bellesia G, Uppugundla N, da Costa SL, Gao D, Cheh AM et al (2011) Restructuring the crystalline cellulose hydrogen bond network enhances its depolymerization rate. J Am Chem Soc 133:11163–11174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hall M, Bansal P, Lee JH, Realff MJ, Bommarius AS (2010) Cellulose crystallinity—a key predictor of the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. FEBS J 277:1571–1582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Klyosov AA, Mitkevich OV, Sinitsyn AP (1986) Role of the activity and adsorption of cellulases in the efficiency of the enzymatic-hydrolysis of amorphous and crystalline cellulose. Biochemistry 25:540–542Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hong J, Ye XH, Zhang YHP (2007) Quantitative determination of cellulose accessibility to cellulase based on adsorption of a nonhydrolytic fusion protein containing CBM and GFP with its applications. Langmuir 23:12535–12540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Va ljamae P, Sild V, Pettersson G, Johansson G (1998) The initial kinetics of hydrolysis by cellobiohydrolases I and II is consistent with a cellulose surface-erosion model. Eur J Biochem 253:469–475Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kleman-Leyer KM, Gilkes NR, Miller RC Jr, Kirk TK (1994) Changes in the molecular-size distribution of insoluble celluloses by the action of recombinant Cellulomonas fimi cellulases. Biochem J 302:463–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Srisodsuk M, Kleman-Leyer K, Keranen S, Kirk TK, Teeri TT (1998) Modes of action on cotton and bacterial cellulose of a homologous endoglucanase-exoglucanase pair from Trichoderma reesei. Eur J Chem 251:885–892Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wood TM (1975) Properties and mode of action of cellulases. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp 5:111–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pan X, Xie D, Kang KY, Yoon SL, Saddler JN (2007) Effect of organosolv ethanol pretreatment variables on physical characteristics of hybrid poplar substrates. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 137:367–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pan XJ, Xie D, Yu RW, Saddler JN (2008) The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hallac BB, Sannigrahi P, Pu YQ, Ray M, Murphy RJ, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Effect of ethanol organosolv pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of Buddleja davidii stem biomass. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:1467–1472Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sinitsyn AP, Gusakov AV, Vlasenko EY (1991) Effect of structural and physico-chemical features of cellulosic substrates on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 30:43–59Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang YHP, Lynd LR (2006) A functionally based model for hydrolysis of cellulose by fungal cellulase. Biotechnol Bioeng 94:888–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zheng Y, Pan Z, Zhang R (2009) Overview of biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production. Int J Agric Biol Eng 2:51–68Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Um BH, Karim MN, Henk LL (2003) Effect of sulfuric and phosphoric acid pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 105:115–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jensen JR, Morinelly JE, Gossen KR, Brodeur-Campbell MJ, Shonnard DR (2010) Effects of dilute acid pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis monomer and oligomer sugar yields for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass. Bioresour Technol 101:2317–2325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tian S, Zhu W, Gleisner R, Pan XJ, Zhu JY (2011) Comparisons of SPORL and dilute acid pretreatments for sugar and ethanol productions from aspen. Biotechnol Prog 27:419–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wyman CE, Balan V, Dale BE, Elander RT, Falls M, Hames B et al (2011) Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar yields from different switchgrass sources. Bioresour Technol 102:11052–11062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhang J, Ma X, Yu J, Zhang X, Tan T (2011) The effects of four different pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum bagasse. Bioresour Technol 102:4585–4589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shi J, Pu Y, Yang B, Ragauskas A, Wyman CE (2011) Comparison of microwaves to fluidized sand baths for heating tubular reactors for hydrothermal and dilute acid batch pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 102:5952–5961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ucar G (1990) Pretreatment of poplar by acid and alkali for enzymatic hydrolysis. Wood Sci Technol 24:171–180Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhu YM, Lee YY, Elander RT (2005) Optimization of dilute-acid pretreatment of corn stover using a high-solids percolation reactor. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121:1045–1054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lee YY, Wu ZW, Torget RW (2000) Modeling of countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor in dilute-acid total-hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresour Technol 71:29–39Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007) Enzyme-based hydrolysis processes for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials: a review. Bioresources 2:707–738Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen RF, Wu ZW, Lee YY (1998) Shrinking-bed model for percolation process applied to dilute-acid pretreatment hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 70–2:37–49Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2007) Process for ethanol from lignocellulosic materials I: acid-based hydrolysis processes. Bioresources 2:472–499Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sannigrahi P, Kim DH, Jung S, Ragauskas A (2011) Pseudo-lignin and pretreatment chemistry. Energy Environ Sci 4:1306–1310Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Chum HL, Black SK, Johnson DK, Sarkanen KV, Robert D (1999) Organosolv pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of poplars: isolation and quantitative structural studies of lignins. Clean Technol Environ Policy 1:187–198Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Liu CG, Wyman CE (2004) The effect of flow rate of very dilute sulfuric acid on xylan, lignin, and total mass removal from corn stover. Ind Eng Chem Res 43:2781–2788Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Martinez JM, Reguant J, Montero MA, Montane D, Salvado J, Farriol X (1997) Hydrolytic pretreatment of softwood and almond shells. Degree of polymerization and enzymatic digestibility of the cellulose fraction. Ind Eng Chem Res 36:688–696Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lloyd T, Wyman CE (2003) Application of a depolymerization model for predicting thermochemical hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 105:53–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kabel MA, Bos G, Zeevalking J, Voragen AG, Schols HA (2007) Effect of pretreatment severity on xylan solubility and enzymatic breakdown of the remaining cellulose from wheat straw. Bioresour Technol 98:2034–2042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sun Y, Cheng JJ (2005) Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production. Bioresour Technol 96:1599–1606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schell DJ, Farmer J, Newman M, McMillan JD (2003) Dilute-sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover in pilot-scale reactor—investigation of yields, kinetics, and enzymatic digestibilities of solids. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 105:69–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hsu TC, Guo GL, Chen WH, Hwang WS (2010) Effect of dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw on structural properties and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 101:4907–4913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Adel AM, Abd El-Wahab ZH, Ibrahim AA, Al-Shemy MT (2010) Characterization of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from lignocellulosic materials. Part I. Acid catalyzed hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 101:4446–4455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Conner AH (1984) Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part I. Xylan removal by water prehydrolysis. Wood Fiber Sci 16:268–277Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Conner AH, Lorenz LF (1986) Kinetic modeling of hardwood prehydrolysis. Part III. Water and dilute acetic acid prehydrolysis of Southern red oak. Wood Fiber Sci 18:248–263Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Carrasco F, Roy C (1992) Kinetic study of dilute-acid prehydrolysis of xylan-containing biomass. Wood Sci Technol 26:189–208Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Belkacemi K, Abatzoglou N, Overend RP, Chornet E (1991) Phenomenological kinetics of complex systems: mechanistic considerations in the solubilization of hemicelluloses following aqueous/steam treatments. Ind Eng Chem Res 30:2416–2425Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jacobsen SE, Wyman CE (2002) Xylose monomer and oligomer yields for uncatalyzed hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose at varying solids concentration. Ind Eng Chem Res 41:1454–1461Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lu Y, Mosier NS (2008) Kinetic modeling analysis of maleic acid-catalyzed hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:1170–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Shen J, Wyman CE (2011) A novel mechanism and kinetic model to explain enhanced xylose yields from dilute sulfuric acid compared to hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 102:9111–9120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Garrote G, Dominguez H, Parajo JC (2002) Interpretation of deacetylation and hemicellulose hydrolysis during hydrothermal treatments on the basis of the severity factor. Proc Biochem 37:1067–1073Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Brunecky R, Vinzant TB, Porter SE, Donohoe BS, Johnson DK, Himmel ME (2009) Redistribution of xylan in maize cell walls during dilute acid pretreatment. Biotechnol Bioeng 102:1537–1543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jung S, Foston M, Sullards MC, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Surface characterization of dilute acid pretreated Populus deltoides by ToF-SIMS. Energy Fuel 24:1347–1357Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Donohoe BS, Decker SR, Tucker MP, Himmel ME, Vinzant TB (2008) Visualizing lignin coalescence and migration through maize cell walls following thermochemical pretreatment. Biotechnol Bioeng 101:913–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Selig MJ, Viamaja S, Decker SR, Tucker MP, Himmel ME, Vinzant TB (2007) Deposition of lignin droplets produced during dilute acid pretreatment of maize stems retards enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Biotechnol Prog 23:1333–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kong FR, Engler CR, Soltes EJ (1992) Effects of cell-wall acetate, xylan backbone, and lignin on enzymatic-hydrolysis of aspen wood. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 34–35:23–35Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Foston M, Ragauskas AJ (2010) Changes in lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass. Biomass Bioenergy 34:1885–1895Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kumar R, Mago G, Balan V, Wyman CE (2009) Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies. Bioresour Technol 100:3948–3962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lloyd TA, Wyman CE (2005) Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. Bioresour Technol 96:1967–1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Castro E, Diaz MJ, Cara C, Ruiz E, Romero I, Moya M (2011) Dilute acid pretreatment of rapeseed straw for fermentable sugar generation. Bioresour Technol 102:1270–1276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Emelsy A, Heywood R (1997) On the kinetics of degradation of cellulose. Cellulose 4:1–5Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhao X-B, Wang L, Liu D-H (2008) Peracetic acid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis: a continued work. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:950–956Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Debzi EM, Chanzy H, Sugiyama J, Tekely P, Excoffier G (1991) The Iα→Iβ transformation of highly crystalline cellulose by annealing in various mediums. Macromolecules 24:6816–6822Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lindgren T, Edlund U, Iversen T (1995) A multivariate characterization of crystal transformations of cellulose. Cellulose 2:273–288Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sannigrahi P, Ragauskas AJ, Miller SJ (2008) Effects of two-stage dilute acid pretreatment on the structure and composition of lignin and cellulose in loblolly pine. BioEnergy Res 1:205–214Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rinaudo M, Merle JP (1970) Polydispersity of celluloses and enzymatic degraded celluloses by gel permeation chromatography. Eur Polym 6:41–50Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    O’Sullivan A (1997) Cellulose: the structure slowly unravels. Cellulose 4:173–207Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hattula T (1985) Effects of heat and water on the ultrastructure of wood cellulose. Dissertation. University of Helsinki, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Håkansson H, Ahlgren P, Germgård U (2005) The degree of disorder in hardwood kraft pulps studied by means of LODP. Cellulose 12:327–335Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Russell JB (1992) Another explanation for the toxicity of fermentation acids at low ph—anion accumulation versus uncoupling. J Appl Bacteriol 73:363–370Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Liu ZL, Slininger PJ, Gorsich SW (2005) Enhanced biotransformation of furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural by newly developed ethanologenic yeast strains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121:451–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Palmqvist E, Hahn-Hagerdal B (2000) Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. II: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Bioresour Technol 74:25–33Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mao JD, Holtman KM, Franqui-Villanueva D (2010) Chemical structures of corn stover and its residue after dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis: insight into factors limiting enzymatic hydrolysis. J Agric Food Chem 58:11680–11687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen W-H, Tu Y-J, Sheen H-K (2010) Impact of dilute acid pretreatment on the structure of bagasse for bioethanol production. Int J Energy Res 34:265–274Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pingali SV, Urban VS, Heller WT, McGaughey J, O’Neill H, Foston M et al (2010) Breakdown of cell wall nanostructure in dilute acid pretreated biomass. Biomacromolecules 11:2329–2335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Li JB, Henriksson G, Gellerstedt G (2005) Carbohydrate reactions during high-temperature steam treatment of aspen wood. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 125:175–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Li JB, Henriksson G, Gellerstedt G (2007) Lignin depolymerization/repolymerization and its critical role for delignification of aspen wood by steam explosion. Bioresour Technol 98:3061–3068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    VanWalsum GP, Allen SG, Spencer MJ, Laser MS, Antal MJ, Lynd LR (1996) Conversion of lignocellulosics pretreated with liquid hot water to ethanol. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 57–8:157–170Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Alvira P, Tomas-Pejo E, Ballesteros M, Negro MJ (2010) Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic hydrolysis: a review. Bioresour Technol 101:4851–4861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Overend RP, Chornet E (1987) Fractionation of lignocellulosics by steam–aqueous pretreatments. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A—Math Phys Eng Sci 321:523–536Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Pérez JA, González A, Oliva JM, Ballesteros I, Manzanares P (2007) Effect of process variables on liquid hot water pretreatment of wheat straw for bioconversion to fuel-ethanol in a batch reactor. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 82:929–938Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Perez J, Ballesteros I, Ballesteros M, Saez F, Negro M, Manzanares P (2008) Optimizing liquid hot water pretreatment conditions to enhance sugar recovery from wheat straw for fuel-ethanol production. Fuel 87:3640–3647Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hu Z, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Hydrothermal pretreatment of switchgrass. Ind Eng Chem Res 50:4225–4230Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lora JH, Wayman M (1978) Delignification of hardwood by autohydrolysis and extraction. Tappi J 61:47–50Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Allen SG, Schulman D, Lichwa J, Antal MJ, Laser M, Lynd LR (2001) A comparison between hot liquid water and steam fractionation of corn fiber. Ind Eng Chem Res 40:2934–2941Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Laser M, Schulman D, Allen SG, Lichwa J, Antal MJ, Lynd LR (2002) A comparison of liquid hot water and steam pretreatments of sugar cane bagasse for bioconversion to ethanol. Bioresour Technol 81:33–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Garrote G, Kabel MA, Schols HA, Falque E, Dominguez H, Parajo JC (2007) Effects of eucalyptus globulus wood autohydrolysis conditions on the reaction products. J Agric Food Chem 55:9006–9013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Vegas R, Kabel M, Schols HA, Alonso JL, Parajó JC (2008) Hydrothermal processing of rice husks: effects of severity on product distribution. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 83:965–972Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Liu C, Wyman CE (2003) The effect of flow rate of compressed hot water on xylan, lignin, and total mass removal from corn stover. Ind Eng Chem Res 42:5409–5416Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Liu CG, Wyman CE (2004) The effect of flow rate of very dilute sulfuric acid on xylan, lignin, and total mass removal from corn stover. Ind Eng Chem Re 43:2781–2788Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Liu C, Wyman CE (2005) Partial flow of compressed-hot water through corn stover to enhance hemicellulose sugar recovery and enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. Bioresour Technol 96:1978–1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kim Y, Hendrickson R, Mosier N, Ladisch MR (2005) Plug-flow reactor for continuous hydrolysis of glucans and xylans from pretreated corn fiber. Energy Fuel 19:2189–2200Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gray MC, Converse AO, Wyman CE (2007) Solubilities of oligomer mixtures produced by the hydrolysis of xylans and corn stover in water at 180°C. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:2383–2391Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yang B, Wyman CE (2008) Characterization of the degree of polymerization of xylooligomers produced by flowthrough hydrolysis of pure xylan and corn stover with water. Bioresour Technol 99:5756–5762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Bobleter O (1994) Hydrothermal degradation of polymers derived from plants. Prog Polym Sci 19:797–841Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ando H, Sakaki T, Kokusho T, Shibata M, Uemura Y, Hatate Y (2000) Decomposition behavior of plant biomass in hot-compressed water. Ind Eng Chem Res 39:3688–3693Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Mittal A, Chatterjee SG, Scott GM, Amidon TE (2009) Modeling xylan solubilization during autohydrolysis of sugar maple wood meal: reaction kinetics. Holzforschung 63:307–314Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mittal A, Chatterjee SG, Scott GM, Amidon TE (2009) Modeling xylan solubilization during autohydrolysis of sugar maple and aspen wood chips: reaction kinetics and mass transfer. Chem Eng Sci 64:3031–3041Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bouchard J, Nguyen TS, Chornet E, Overend RP (1991) Analytical methodology for biomass pretreatment. 2. Characterization of the filtrates and cumulative product distribution as a function of treatment severity. Bioresour Technol 36:121–131Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Garrote G, Dominguez H, Parajo JC (2001) Kinetic modelling of corncob autohydrolysis. Process Biochem 36:571–578Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rogalinski T, Ingram T, Brunner G (2008) Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in water under elevated temperatures and pressures. J Supercrit Fluids 47:54–63Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Du B, Sharma LN, Becker C, Chen SF, Mowery RA, van Walsum GP et al (2010) Effect of varying feedstock-pretreatment chemistry combinations on the formation and accumulation of potentially inhibitory degradation products in biomass hydrolysates. Biotechnol Bioeng 107:430–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kohlmann KL, Sarikaya A, Westgate PJ, Weil J, Velayudhan A, Hendrickson R et al (1995) Enhanced enzyme activities on hydrated lignocellulosic substrates. In: Saddler JN, Penner MH (eds) Enzymatic degradation of insoluble carbohydrates. Springer, Netherlands, pp 237–255Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Mosier N, Hendrickson R, Ho N, Sedlak M, Ladisch MR (2005) Optimization of pH controlled liquid hot water pretreatment of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:1986–1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Weil J, Brewer M, Hendrickson R, Sarikaya A, Ladisch MR (1998) Continuous pH monitoring during pretreatment of yellow poplar wood sawdust by pressure cooking in water. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 70–2:99–111Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yu Y, Wu HW (2010) Significant differences in the hydrolysis behavior of amorphous and crystalline portions within microcrystalline cellulose in hot-compressed water. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:3902–3909Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Xiao LP, Sun ZJ, Shi ZJ, Xu F, Sun RC (2011) Impact of hot compressed water pretreatment on the structural changes of woody biomass for bioethanol production. Bioresources 6:1576–1598Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kristensen JB, Thygesen LG, Felby C, Jorgensen H, Elder T (2008) Cell-wall structural changes in wheat straw pretreated for bioethanol production. Biotechnol Biofuels 1:5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Lee JM, Jameel H, Venditti RA (2010) A comparison of the autohydrolysis and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatments on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of coastal Bermuda grass. Bioresour Technol 101:5449–5458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hu ZJ, Foston MB, Ragauskas AJ (2011) Biomass characterization of morphological portions of alamo switchgrass. J Agric Food Chem 59:7765–7772PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Hsu TA (1996) Pretreatment of biomass. In: Wyman CE (ed) Handbook on bioethanol production and utilization. Applied Energy Technology Series. Taylor & Francis, Washington, pp 179–195Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wyman CE, Dale BE, Elander RT, Holtzapple M, Ladisch MR, Lee YY (2005) Coordinated development of leading biomass pretreatment technologies. Bioresour Technol 96:1959–1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Alfani A, Gallifuoco F, Saporosi A, Spera A, Cantarella M (2000) Comparison of SHF and SSF process for the bioconversion of steam-exploded wheat straw. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 25:184–192Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Weil J, Sarikaya A, Rau SL, Goetz J, Ladisch CM, Brewer M et al (1997) Pretreatment of yellow poplar sawdust by pressure cooking in water. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 68:21–40Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Chen XW, Lawoko M, van Heiningen A (2010) Kinetics and mechanism of autohydrolysis of hardwoods. Bioresour Technol 101:7812–7819Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Saake B, Kathofer DG, Kruse T, Puls J (2001) Determination of factors controlling xylan solubility and association. Abstr Papers ACS 221:U189Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Negro M (2003) Changes in various physical/chemical parameters of Pinus pinaster wood after steam explosion pretreatment. Biomass Bioenergy 25:301–308Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wang K, Jiang JX, Xu F, Sun RC (2009) Influence of steaming pressure on steam explosion pretreatment of Lespedeza stalks (Lespedeza crytobotrya): part 1. Characteristics of degraded cellulose. Polym Degrad Stab 94:1379–1388Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wang K, Jiang JX, Xu F, Sun RC (2009) Influence of steaming explosion time on the physic-chemical properties of cellulose from Lespedeza stalks (Lespedeza crytobotrya). Bioresour Technol 100:5288–5294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Li J, Gellerstedt G (2008) Improved lignin properties and reactivity by modifications in the autohydrolysis process of aspen wood. Ind Crops Prod 27:175–181Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Asada C, Nakamura Y, Kobayashi F (2005) Chemical characteristics and ethanol fermentation of the cellulose component in autohydrolyzed bagasse. Biotechnol Bioproc Eng 10:346–352Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Yamashiki T, Matsui T, Saitoh M, Okajima K, Kamide K (1990) Characterization of cellulose treated by the steam explosion method. 2. Effect of treatment conditions on changes in morphology, degree of polymerization, solubility in aqueous sodium-hydroxide and supermolecular structure of soft wood pulp during steam explosion. Br Polym J 22:121–128Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Fernandez-Bolanos J, Felizon B, Heredia A, Guillen R, Jimenez A (1999) Characterization of the lignin obtained by alkaline delignification and of the cellulose residue from steam-exploded olive stones. Bioresour Technol 68:121–132Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Deguchi S, Tsujii K, Horikoshi K (2008) Crystalline-to-amorphous transformation of cellulose in hot and compressed water and its implications for hydrothermal conversion. Green Chem 10:191Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Tanahashi MS, Takada T, Aoki T, Goto T, Higuchi, Hanai S (1982) Characterization of explosion wood. 1. Structures and physical properties. Wood Res 69:36–51Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Corredor DY, Salazar JM, Hohn KL, Bean S, Bean B, Wang D (2009) Evaluation and characterization of forage sorghum as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 158:164–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Cherian BM, Leão AL, de Souza SF, Thomas S, Pothan LA, Kottaisamy M (2010) Isolation of nanocellulose from pineapple leaf fibres by steam explosion. Carbohydr Polym 81:720–725Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Carvalheiro F, Duarte LC, Girio FM (2008) Hemicellulose biorefineries: a review on biomass pretreatments. J Sci Ind Res 67:849–864Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Pavlostathis SG, Gossett JM (1985) Alkaline treatment of wheat straw for increasing anaerobic biodegradability. Biotechnol Bioeng 27:334–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Chang VS, Burr B, Holtzapple MT (1997) Lime pretreatment of switchgrass. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 63–5:3–19Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Wu L, Arakane M, Ike M, Wada M, Takai T, Gau M et al (2011) Low temperature alkali pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of sweet sorghum bagasse for ethanol production. Bioresour Technol 102:4793–4799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wan CX, Zhou YG, Li YB (2011) Liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatment of soybean straw for improving cellulose digestibility. Bioresour Technol 102:6254–6259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Peters MS, Timmerhaus KD (1991) Plant design and economics for chemical engineers, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Nagwani M (1992) Calcium hydroxide pretreatment of biomass, MS thesis. Texas A&M University, College StationGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Kim S, Holtzapple MT (2005) Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:1994–2006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Liang Y, Siddaramu T, Yesuf J, Sarkany N (2010) Fermentable sugar release from Jatropha seed cakes following lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour Technol 101:6417–6424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kaar WE, Holtzapple MT (2000) Using lime pretreatment to facilitate the enzymic hydrolysis of corn stover. Biomass Bioenergy 18:189–199Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    He YF, Pang YZ, Liu YP, Li XJ, Wang KS (2008) Physicochemical characterization of rice straw pretreated with sodium hydroxide in the solid state for enhancing biogas production. Energy Fuel 22:2775–2781Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sun XF, Xu F, Sun RC, Fowler P, Baird MS (2005) Characteristics of degraded cellulose obtained from steam-exploded wheat straw. Carbohydr Res 340:97–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Taherzadeh MJ, Karimi K (2008) Pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes to improve ethanol and biogas production: a review. Int J Mol Sci 9:1621–1651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Fan LT, Gharpuray MM, Lee YH (1987) Cellulose hydrolysis biotechnology monographs. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Kim TH, Kim JS, Sunwoo C, Lee YY (2003) Pretreatment of corn stover by aqueous ammonia. Bioresour Technol 90:39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Balan V, Bals B, Chundawat SPS, Marshall D, Dale BE (2009) Lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment using AFEX. In: Mielenz JR (ed) Biofuels: methods and protocols. Humana, New York, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Holtzapple MT, Jun JH, Ashok G, Patibandla SL, Dale BE (1991) The ammonia freeze explosion (AFEX) process—a practical lignocellulosics pretreatment. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 28–9:59–74Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Chundawat SP, Vismeh R, Sharma LN, Humpula JF, da Costa SL, Chambliss CK et al (2010) Multifaceted characterization of cell wall decomposition products formed during ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and dilute acid based pretreatments. Bioresour Technol 101:8429–8438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kumar P, Barrett DM, Delwiche MJ, Stroeve P (2009) Methods for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:3713–3729Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Alizadeh H, Teymouri F, Gilbert TI, Dale BE (2005) Pretreatment of switchgrass by ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX). Appl Biochem Biotechnol 121:1133–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Teymouri F, Laureano-Perez L, Alizadeh H, Dale BE (2005) Optimization of the ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) treatment parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:2014–2018PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Wyman CE, Dale BE, Elander RT, Holtzapple M, Ladisch MR, Lee YY (2005) Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover. Bioresour Technol 96:2026–2032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Chundawat SPS, Donohoe BS, da Costa SL, Elder T, Agarwal UP, Lu F et al (2011) Multi-scale visualization and characterization of lignocellulosic plant cell wall deconstruction during thermochemical pretreatment. Energy Environ Sci 4:973Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Humpula JF, Chundawat SP, Vismeh R, Jones AD, Balan V, Dale BE (2011) Rapid quantification of major reaction products formed during thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using GC–MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 879:1018–1022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Lau MW, Gunawan C, Dale BE (2009) The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment. Biotechnol Biofuels 2:30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Chundawat SPS, Venkatesh B, Dale BE (2007) Effect of particle size based separation of milled corn stover on AFEX pretreatment and enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol Bioeng 96:219–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Gollapalli LE, Dale BE, Rivers DM (2002) Predicting digestibility of ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX)-treated rice straw. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 98:23–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Wada M, Chanzy H, Nishiyama Y, Langan P (2004) Cellulose IIII crystal structure and hydrogen bonding by synchrotron X-ray and neutron fiber diffraction. Macromolecules 37:8548–8555Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wada M, Nishiyama Y, Langan P (2006) X-ray structure of ammonia–cellulose I: new insights into the conversion of cellulose I to cellulose III. Macromolecules 39:2947–2952Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Huber GW, Iborra S, Corma A (2006) Synthesis of transportation fuels from biomass: chemistry, catalysts, and engineering. Chem Rev 106:4044–4098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kim JS, Kim H, Lee JS, Lee JP, Park SC (2008) Pretreatment characteristics of waste oak wood by ammonia percolation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 148:15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Yoon HH, Wu ZW, Lee YY (1995) Ammonia-recycled percolation process for pretreatment of biomass feedstock. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 51–2:5–19Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kim TH, Lee YY (2005) Pretreatment and fractionation of corn stover by ammonia recycle percolation process. Bioresour Technol 96:2007–2013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Kim TH, Lee YY, Sunwoo C, Kim JS (2006) Pretreatment of corn stover by low-liquid ammonia recycle percolation process. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 133:41–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Zhu YM, Kim TH, Lee YY, Chen RG, Elander RT (2006) Enzymatic production of xylooligosaccharides from corn stover and corn cobs treated with aqueous ammonia. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 130:586–598Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kim JS, Lee YY, Park SC (2000) Pretreatment of wastepaper and pulp mill sludge by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 84–6:129–139Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Cosgrove DJ (2005) Growth of the plant cell wall. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:850–861PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and TechnologyGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations