BioEnergy Research

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 492–503 | Cite as

A Feedstock Readiness Level Tool to Complement the Aviation Industry Fuel Readiness Level Tool

  • Jeffrey J. Steiner
  • Kristin C. Lewis
  • Harry S. Baumes
  • Nathan L. Brown
Article

Abstract

The Feedstock Readiness Level (FSRL) tool was developed by the US Department of Agriculture, US Federal Aviation Administration, and Research and Innovative Technology Administration to describe the steps involved in bringing plant-based feedstocks to market for aviation biofuels production. A candidate feedstock is assigned a FSRL level from 1 through 9, indicating an increasing level of maturity towards commercialization. The FSRL level also communicates the state of development of a feedstock concurrent with its readiness for use with a conversion process. There are four components to the FSRL (production, market, policy, and linkage to conversion process), each with one to four tollgate descriptions per readiness level. The FSRL tool was structured to complement the Fuel Readiness Level (FRL) tool in use by the aviation industry as an internationally recognized communication best practice. Similarly, the FSRL can be used to identify gaps in any feedstock supply chain designed for any biofuel or conversion process that provides a market for feedstocks. This integrated feedstock and conversion technology approach can facilitate a coordinated allocation of resources to effectively plan for and develop a viable aviation biofuels industry.

Keywords

Aviation Biofuel Feedstocks Technology Readiness 

Abbreviations

CAAFI®

Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative®

FAA

Federal Aviation Administration

FRL

Fuel Readiness Level

FSRL

Feedstock Readiness Level

TRL

Technology Readiness Level

USDA

United States Department of Agriculture

References

  1. 1.
    Mankins JC (1995) Technology readiness levels, a white paper. www.hq.nasa.gov/office/codeq/trl/trl.pdf. April 6, 1995 edn. Advanced Concepts Office, Office of Space Access and Technology, NASAGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    CAAFI (2009) Fuel readiness level. www.caafi.org/information/fuelreadinesslevel.html
  3. 3.
    ICAO (Presented by the United States) (2009) CAAF/09-WP/7: proposal to adopt a global fuel readiness level (FRL) protocol. www.icao.int/CAAF2009/Docs/CAAF-09_WP007_en.pdf. Paper presented at the Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels (CAAF). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. October 16, 2009
  4. 4.
    ICAO Secretariat (2009) CAAFI/09-WP24-Rev: declaration and recommendations. Available at: www.icao.int/CAAF2009/Docs/CAAF-09_WP024-Rev_en.pdf. Paper presented at the Conference on Aviation and Alternative Fuels, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 16–18 November 2009
  5. 5.
    USDA (2010) News release no. 0545.10: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack announces renewable energy initiative to spur rural revitalization throughout the country, new agreement with the FAA will promote production and demand for biofuels. www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?contentidonly=true&contentid=2010/10/0545.xml
  6. 6.
    APHIS (2011) Plant import—importation of plants for planting (Quarantine 37). Fed Regist 76(103):31172–31210Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    USEPA (2011) Fuels and additives—fuels programs reporting registration. www.epa.gov/otaq/fuels/reporting/programsregistration.htm
  8. 8.
    Ellerbusch S (2011) President of BP Biofuels North America, speech in conference session “Leveraging existing industry infrastructure to support biofuel development”. Louisiana Energy Conference, June 22–23, 2011. New Orleans, LAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Summary of the National Environmental Policy Act 42 USC §4321 et seq (1969) www.epa.gov/lawsregs/laws/nepa.html (2011)
  10. 10.
    Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDi) (2008) Increasing feedstock production for biofuels—economic drivers, environmental implications, and the role of research. Vol. HD9502.5.B543. BRDBGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Trostle R, Marti D, Rosen S, Westcott P (2011) Why have food prices risen again? A report of the Economic Research Service, USDA. www.ers.usda.gov. USDA ERSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yazdani SS, Gonzalez R (2007) Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol: a path to economic viability for the biofuels industry. Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Felix E, Cardona CA, Quintero JA (2010) Technical and economic viability of biofuel production chains. Environment and Natural Resources Management Working Paper 35: The BEFS analysis for Tanzania. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i1544e/i1544e.pdf FAO/BEFS
  14. 14.
    Perrin R, Vogel K, Schmer M, Mitchell R (2008) Farm-scale production cost of switchgrass for biomass. Bioenergy Res 1:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ross M (2011) New Miscanthus development possible biomass game-changer? FarmWeek Google Scholar
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Pearlson MN (2011) A techno-economic and environmental assessment of hydroprocessed renewable distillate fuels. Available at: http://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/65508/746766700.pdf?sequence=1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts
  18. 18.
    USDA-ERS (2011) Measuring the indirect land-use change associated with increased biofuel feedstock production. A review of modeling efforts. www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/AP/AP054/AP054.pdf Report to Congress

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey J. Steiner
    • 1
  • Kristin C. Lewis
    • 2
  • Harry S. Baumes
    • 3
  • Nathan L. Brown
    • 4
  1. 1.USDA Agricultural Research ServiceOffice of National ProgramsBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems CenterResearch and Innovative Technology Administration, US Department of TransportationCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.USDA Office of the Chief EconomistOffice of Energy Policy and New UsesWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Office of Environment and Energy, Federal Aviation AdministrationUS Department of TransportationWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations