BioEnergy Research

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 713–718 | Cite as

Blighia unijugata and Luffa cylindrica Seed Oils: Renewable Sources of Energy for Sustainable Development in Rural Africa

  • Adewale Adewuyi
  • Rotimi A Oderinde
  • B. V. S. K. Rao
  • R. B. N. Prasad
  • B. Anjaneyulu


Self-sufficiency in energy requirement is critical to the success of any developing economy. Apart from the search for alternatives, there is a need to achieve energy independence, directing much focus on biofuels. Biodiesel is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Oil was extracted from the seeds of Blighia unijugata and Luffa cylindrica, subjected to chemical characterization and biodiesel production. The oil yield from the seed of B. unijugata was 50.82 ± 1.20% while that of L. cylindrica was 39.10 ± 0.20%. The biodiesel produced had ester content above 98%. The flash point of the biodiesel from B. unijugata and L. cylindrica was above 120°C while the phosphorus content was also below 1 ppm in both cases. The oxidative stability of B. unijugata was 44.30 ± 0.30 h, while that of L. cylindrica was lower than this value due to its high unsaturation. The copper strip corrosion value of the biodiesel was also found to be 1A. This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of B. unijugata and L. cylindrica seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H2SO4 as catalyst thus reducing the problem of soap formation encountered when using oil with high free fatty acid for the production of biodiesel.


Biodiesel Blighia unijugata Fatty acids Luffa cylindrica Seed oil 



Adewuyi Adewale thanks the Third World Academy of Sciences for awarding the research fellowship for carrying out this work at India Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) and also grateful to Dr J. S. Yadav, Director, IICT for his support and encouragement.


  1. 1.
    Reeta RS, Binod P, Ashok P (2008) In: Pandey A (ed) Handbook of plant-based biofuels. CRC, Boca Raton, p 3Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agarwal AK (2007) Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion energies. Prog Energy Combust Sci 33:233–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramadhas AS, Jayaraj S, Muraleedharan C (2005) Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil. Fuel 84:335–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Knothe G (2005) Dependence of biodiesel fuel properties on the structure of fatty acid alkyl esters. Fuel Process Technol 86:1059–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ryu K, Oh Y (2004) Combustion characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine using biodiesel fuel. KSME Int J 18:709–717Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Usta N (2005) An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester. Energy Convers Manag 46:2373–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rejinders L (2006) Conditions for the sustainability of biomass based fuel use. Energy Policy 34:863–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang Y, Dubé MA, McLean DD, Kates M (2003) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: 2. Economic assessment and sensitivity analysis. Bioresour Technol 90:229–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burkil HM (2000) The useful plants of West tropical Africa, vol 5, 2nd edn. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 11–13Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oderinde RA, Ajayi IA, Adewuyi A (2008) Evaluation of the mineral nutrients, characterization and some possible uses of Blighia unijugata bak seed and oil. Seed Sci Biotechnol 2:79–82Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oderinde RA, Ajayi IA, Adewuyi A (2008) Nutritional elements, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the leaf, root and stem bark of Blighia unijugata baker (Sapindaceae). Med Arom Plant Sci Biotechnol 2:137–140Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adewuyi A, Oderinde RA, Ajayi IA (2009) Kinetics of the effect of bleaching on the characterization, mineral nutrients and fat soluble vitamins of Blighia unijugata bak seed oil. La Riv Ital Delle Sostanze Grasse LXXXVI:199–208Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burkil HM (1985) The useful plants of West Tropical Africa, vol 1, 2nd edn. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, pp 593–595Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trevithick WE (1927) Flora of West Tropical Africa illustrations, vol 1, 2nd edn. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, p 205Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ajayi IA, Dawodu FA, Adebowale KO, Oderinde RA (2004) A study of the oil content of Nigerian grown Monodora myristica seeds for its nutritional and industrial application. Pak J Ind Res 47:60–65Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    AOAC (1984) Official methods of analysis, vol 67, 14th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, pp 503–515Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    AOCS (2003) American Oil Chemists’ Society official method for the quantitative separation of monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides by silica gel column chromatography. Cd 11c-93. AOCS, Champaign, pp 1–2Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) (1998) Standard test method for kinetic viscosity of transparent and opaque liquids. American Society for Testing and Material, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    AOCS (1997) American Oil Chemists’ Society official method for total, free and combined glycerol, Ca 14–56. AOCS, Champaign, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) (2004) Copper strip corrosion test D396 specification for fuel oils. American Society for Testing and Material, West Conshohocken, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    AOCS (1997) American Oil Chemists’ Society official method for flash point closed cup method (modified closed cup method, ASTM designation D 93–80). AOCS, Champaign, pp 9b–55bGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    AOCS (2002) American Oil Chemists’ Society official method for colorimetric determination of phosphorus content in fats and oils Ca 12a–02. AOCS, Champaign, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    American Society for Testing and Material (ASTM) (1997) ASTM D97 standard test method for pour point of petroleum products. American Society for Testing and Material, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Batel W, Graef M, Meyer GJ, Moller R, Schoedder F (1980) Pflonzenole fur die Kraftstoff-und Energieversorgung. Grundlagen der Landtechnik 30:40–51Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    EN (2003) European Committee for Standardization: EN 14112: fat and oil derivatives—fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)—determination of oxidation stability (accelerated oxidation test). European Committee for Standardization, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gelbard G, Bres O, Vargas RM, Vielfaure F, Schuchardt UF (1995) 1H-Nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the yield of the transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol. J Am Oil Chem Soc 72:1239–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Antolin G, Tinaut FV, Briceno Y, Castano V, Perez C, Ramirez AI (2002) Optimization of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification. Bioresour Technol 83:111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Holser RA, O’Kuru RH (2006) Transesterified milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel. Fuel 85:2106–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ma F, Hanna MA (1999) Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresour Technol 70:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Knothe G (2006) Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods. J Am Oil Chem Soc 83:823–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Knothe G, Krahl J, Van Gerpen J (2005) The biodiesel handbook. AOCS, ChampaignCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adewale Adewuyi
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rotimi A Oderinde
    • 2
  • B. V. S. K. Rao
    • 3
  • R. B. N. Prasad
    • 3
  • B. Anjaneyulu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Chemical SciencesRedeemer’s UniversityMoweNigeria
  2. 2.Industrial Unit, Department of ChemistryUniversity of IbadanIbadanNigeria
  3. 3.Centre for Lipid ResearchIndia Institute of Chemical TechnologyHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations