Characteristics of iodine-123 IQ-SPECT/CT imaging compared with conventional SPECT/CT
Although the utility of IQ-SPECT imaging using 99mTc and 201Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT has been reported, 123I-labeled myocardial SPECT has not been fully evaluated. We determined the characteristics and utility of 123I IQ-SPECT imaging compared with conventional SPECT (C-SPECT).
Two myocardial phantom patterns were used to simulate normal myocardium and myocardial infarction. SPECT acquisition was performed using a hybrid dual-head SPECT/CT system equipped with a SMARTZOOM collimator for IQ-SPECT or a low-medium energy general purpose collimator for C-SPECT. Projection data were reconstructed using ordered subset expectation maximization with depth-dependent 3-dimensional resolution recovery for C-SPECT and ordered subset conjugate gradient minimizer method for IQ-SPECT. Three types of myocardial image were created; namely, no correction (NC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter corrections (ACSC). Five observers visually scored the homogeneity of normal myocardium and defect severity of the myocardium with inferior defects by a five-point scale: homogeneity scores (5 = homogeneous to 1 = inhomogeneous) and defect scores (5 = excellent to 1 = poor). We also created a 17-segment polar map and quantitatively assessed segmental %uptake using a myocardial phantom with normal findings and defects.
The average visual homogeneity scores of the IQ-SPECT with NC and ACSC were significantly higher than that of C-SPECT, whereas the average visual defect scores of IQ-SPECT with AC and ACSC were significantly lower. The %uptake of all segments for IQ-SPECT with NC was significantly higher than that of C-SPECT. Furthermore, the subtraction of %uptake for C-SPECT and IQ-SPECT was the largest in inferior wall, which was approximately 10.1%, 14.7% and 14.4% for NC, AC and ACSC, respectively. The median % uptake values of the inferior wall with defect areas for C-SPECT and IQ-SPECT were 46.9% and 50.7% with NC, 59.8% and 69.2% with AC, and 54.7% and 66.5% with ACSC, respectively.
123I IQ-SPECT imaging significantly improved the attenuation artifact compared with C-SPECT imaging. Although the defect detectability of IQ-SPECT was inferior to that of C-SPECT, 123I IQ-SPECT images with NC and ACSC met the criteria for defect detectability. Use of 123I IQ-SPECT is suitable for routine examinations.
KeywordsIQ-SPECT Multi-focus collimator Iodine-123 Short acquisition OSCGM
The authors thank Ms. Ayumi Niitsuma, RT at Southern TOHOKU Research Institute for Neuroscience for her assistant of image processing and analysis. Furthermore, we would like to thank Editage (http://www.editage.jp) for English language editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
K. Nakajima has undertaken a collaborative research work with Siemens Japan (Tokyo, Japan). No other authors report any potential conflicts of interest relevant to this study.
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