Preliminary feasibility study on differential diagnosis between radiation-induced cerebral necrosis and recurrent brain tumor by means of [18F]fluoro-borono-phenylalanine PET/CT
A previous study reported that a differential diagnosis between glioblastoma progression and radiation necrosis by 4-borono-2-[18F]-fluoro-phenylalanine ([18F]FBPA) PET can be made based on lesion-to-normal ratio of [18F]FBPA accumulation. Two-dimensional data acquisition mode PET alone system, with in-plane resolution of 7.9 mm and axial resolution of 13.9 mm, was used. In the current study, we aimed to confirm the differential diagnostic capability of [18F]FBPA PET/CT with higher PET spatial resolution by three-dimensional visual inspection and by measuring mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), maximum SUV (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion (TL) [18F]FBPA uptake.
Twelve patients of glioma (9), malignant meningioma (1), hemangiopericytoma (1), and metastatic brain tumor (1) were enrolled. All had preceding radiotherapy. High-resolution three-dimensional data acquisition mode PET/CT with in-plane resolution of 4.07 mm and axial resolution of 5.41 mm was employed for imaging. Images were three-dimensionally analyzed using the PMOD software. SUVmean and SUVmax of lesion and normal brain were measured. Lesion MTV and TL FBPA uptake were calculated. The diagnostic accuracy of [18F]FBPA PET/CT in detecting recurrence (n = 6) or necrosis (n = 6) was verified by clinical follow-up.
All parameters showed significantly higher values for tumor recurrence than for necrosis. SUVmean in recurrence was 2.95 ± 0.84 vs 1.18 ± 0.24 in necrosis (P = 0.014); SUVmax in recurrence was 4.63 ± 1.23 vs 1.93 ± 0.44 in necrosis (P = 0.014); MTV in recurrence was 44.92 ± 28.93 mL vs 10.66 ± 8.46 mL in necrosis (P = 0.032); and mean TL FBPA uptake in recurrence was 121.01 ± 50.48 g vs 12.36 ± 9.70 g in necrosis (P = 0.0029).
In this preliminary feasibility study, we confirmed the possibility of differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis in patients with irradiated brain tumors by [18F]FBPA PET/CT using indices of SUVmean, SUVmax, MTV, and TL 18FBPA uptake.
KeywordsFBPA PET LAT1 Radiation necrosis Recurrence Brain tumor
This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)(JP15K09954), (C)(24591758), and (S)(24229008) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. The authors thankfully acknowledge the help and support of Mr. Takashi Kamiya chief technologist, Osaka University Hospital.
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