Annals of Nuclear Medicine

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 18–28 | Cite as

Optimization of image reconstruction conditions with phantoms for brain FDG and amyloid PET imaging

  • Go AkamatsuEmail author
  • Yasuhiko Ikari
  • Tomoyuki Nishio
  • Hiroyuki Nishida
  • Akihito Ohnishi
  • Kazuki Aita
  • Masahiro Sasaki
  • Masayuki Sasaki
  • Michio SendaEmail author
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to optimize image reconstruction conditions for brain 18F-FDG, 11C-PiB, 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol PET imaging with Discovery-690 PET/CT for diagnosis and research on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) based on the standard imaging protocols and phantom test procedures and criteria published by the Japanese society of nuclear medicine (JSNM).


A Hoffman 3D brain phantom and a cylindrical pool phantom were scanned according to the JSNM procedure, and the reconstruction conditions (iteration, subset, post-filter) were optimized so that the images satisfy the JSNM criteria regarding spatial resolution (FWHM ≤8 mm) and gray/white matter contrast (%contrast ≥55 %) on the Hoffman phantom and uniformity (SD of small ROIs ≤0.0249) and image noise (coefficient of variation ≤15 %) on the pool phantom. Human images were acquired with 18F-FDG (15-min scan starting at 30 min post-injection [p.i.] of 185 MBq), 11C-PiB (20-min scan starting at 50 min p.i. of 555 MBq), 18F-florbetapir (10-min scan starting at 50 min p.i. of 370 MBq) and 18F-flutemetamol (30-min scan starting at 90 min p.i. of 185 MBq) on 1 or 2 subjects for each tracer and reconstructed with thus determined conditions to evaluate the image quality visually. The effect of reconstruction parameters on the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) was also evaluated on 5 amyloid-positive and 5 amyloid-negative PiB images.


A sufficient image quality was obtained at an iterative update (product of iteration and subset) of 64 for 18F-FDG. The same reconstruction parameters with an additional Gaussian filter of 5 mm FWHM was optimal for 11C-PiB, 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol to achieve the phantom criteria. Those optimal reconstruction conditions were confirmed with human images. The SUVR value was stable over a wide range of iterative updates around the optimal parameters both for positive and negative amyloid images.


Optimal image reconstruction conditions were determined for brain 18F-FDG and amyloid PET imaging with Discovery-690 PET/CT for diagnosis and research on AD based on the JSNM phantom criteria. This supports feasibility of the phantom criteria for standardization and harmonization of brain 18F-FDG and amyloid PET for multicenter studies.


18F-FDG Amyloid Reconstruction parameter Alzheimer’s disease Standardized uptake value ratio 



We acknowledge Dr. Yasuji Yamamoto for patient referral. We also thank Eli Lilly and GE Healthcare for providing information and PET images of their respective clinical trials. Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation carried out clinical trial of 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol sponsored by AVID/Eli Lilly and GE Healthcare, respectively, with Michio Senda as principal investigator.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation carried out clinical trial of 18F-florbetapir and 18F-flutemetamol sponsored by AVID/Eli Lilly and GE Healthcare, respectively, with Michio Senda as principal investigator.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Go Akamatsu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yasuhiko Ikari
    • 1
  • Tomoyuki Nishio
    • 1
  • Hiroyuki Nishida
    • 1
  • Akihito Ohnishi
    • 1
  • Kazuki Aita
    • 1
  • Masahiro Sasaki
    • 1
  • Masayuki Sasaki
    • 2
  • Michio Senda
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Molecular ImagingInstitute of Biomedical Research and InnovationKobeJapan
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesGraduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

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