Annals of Nuclear Medicine

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 268–275 | Cite as

Monitoring of positron using high-energy gamma camera for proton therapy

  • Seiichi Yamamoto
  • Toshiyuki Toshito
  • Masataka Komori
  • Yuki Morishita
  • Satoshi Okumura
  • Mitsutaka Yamaguchi
  • Yuichi Saito
  • Naoki Kawachi
  • Shu Fujimaki
Original Article



In proton therapy, imaging of proton-induced positrons is a useful method to monitor the proton beam distribution after therapy. Usually, a positron emission tomography (PET) system installed in or near the proton beam treatment room is used for this purpose. However, a PET system is sometimes too large and expensive for this purpose. We developed a small field-of-view (FOV) gamma camera for high-energy gamma photons and used it for monitoring the proton-induced positron distribution.


The gamma camera used 0.85 mm × 0.85 mm × 10 mm Ce:Gd3Al2Ga3O12 (GAGG) pixels arranged in 20 × 20 matrix to form a scintillator block, which was optically coupled to a 1-inch-square position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The GAGG detector was encased in a 20-mm thick container and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its front. The gamma camera was set 1.2 m from the 35 cm × 35 cm × 5 cm plastic phantom in the proton therapy treatment room, and proton beams were irradiated to the phantom with two proton energies.


The gamma camera had spatial resolution of ~6.7 cm and sensitivity of 3.2 × 10−7 at 1 m from the collimator surface. For both proton energies, positron distribution in the phantom could be imaged by the gamma camera with 10-min acquisition. The lengths of the range of protons measured from the images were almost identical to the simulation results.


These results indicate that the developed high-energy gamma camera is useful for imaging positron distributions in proton therapy.


Proton therapy Positron Gamma camera Imaging 



Measurements of proton beam in this work were performed at the Nagoya Proton Therapy Center. We would also like to thank the clinical team for allowing beam time for our experiments, and thank all of the staff who helped us prepare and carry out the irradiations.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiichi Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Toshiyuki Toshito
    • 2
  • Masataka Komori
    • 1
  • Yuki Morishita
    • 1
  • Satoshi Okumura
    • 1
  • Mitsutaka Yamaguchi
    • 3
  • Yuichi Saito
    • 3
  • Naoki Kawachi
    • 4
  • Shu Fujimaki
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Radiological and Medical Laboratory SciencesNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy CenterNagoya City West Medical CenterNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research InstituteJapan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)TakasakiJapan
  4. 4.Quantum Beam Science CenterJapan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)TakasakiJapan

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