Annals of Nuclear Medicine

, Volume 29, Issue 1, pp 15–20 | Cite as

Improved spillover correction model to quantify myocardial blood flow by 11C-acetate PET: comparison with 15O-H2O PET

  • Yuki Mori
  • Osamu Manabe
  • Masanao Naya
  • Yuuki Tomiyama
  • Keiichiro Yoshinaga
  • Keiichi Magota
  • Noriko Oyama-Manabe
  • Kenji Hirata
  • Hiroyuki Tsutsui
  • Nagara Tamaki
  • Chietsugu Katoh
Original Article



11C-acetate has been applied for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism and can simultaneously estimate myocardial blood flow (MBF). We developed a new method using two-parameter spillover correction to estimate regional MBF (rMBF) with 11C-acetate PET in reference to MBF derived from 15O-H2O PET. The usefulness of our new approach was evaluated compared to the conventional method using one-parameter spillover correction.


Sixty-three subjects were examined with 11C-acetate and 15O-H2O dynamic PET at rest. Inflow rate of 11C-acetate (K1) was compared with MBF derived from 15O-H2O PET. For the derivation, the relationship between K1 and MBF from 15O-H2O was linked by the Renkin-Crone model in 20 subjects as a pilot group. One-parameter and two-parameter corrections were applied to suppress the spillover between left ventricular (LV) wall and LV cavity. Validation was set using the other 43 subjects’ data. Finally, rMBFs were calculated using relational expression derived from the pilot-group data.


The relationship between K1 and MBF derived from 15O-H2O PET was approximated as K1 = [1–0.764 × exp(−1.001/MBF)] MBF from the pilot data using the two-parameter method. In the validation set, the correlation coefficient between rMBF from 11C-acetate and 15O-H2O demonstrated a significantly higher relationship with the two-parameter spillover correction method than the one-parameter spillover correction method (r = 0.730, 0.592, respectively, p < 0.05).


In 11C-acetate PET study, the new two-parameter spillover correction method dedicated more accurate and robust myocardial blood flow than the conventional one-parameter method.


11C-acetate 15O-H2PET Regional myocardial blood flow Spillover correction 



The authors thank Hidehiko Omote, RT; Shigeo Oomagari, MSc; and Eriko Suzuki for their support of this study. The study was supported in part by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Japan (Category Young Investigator, No. 40443957 and the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture Japan (No. 10292012), and by a Japan Radiological Society Bayer Grant.


  1. 1.
    Brown MA, Myears DW, Bergmann SR. Validity of estimates of myocardial oxidative metabolism with carbon-11 acetate and positron emission tomography despite altered patterns of substrate utilization. J Nucl Med. 1989;30:187–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sun KT, Yeatman LA, Buxton DB, Chen K, Johnson JA, Huang SC, et al. Simultaneous measurement of myocardial oxygen consumption and blood flow using [1-carbon-11]acetate. J Nucl Med. 1998;39:272–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Herrero P, Kim J, Sharp TL, Engelbach JA, Lewis JS, Gropler RJ, et al. Assessment of myocardial blood flow using 15O-water and 1-11C-acetate in rats with small-animal PET. J Nucl Med. 2006;47:477–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Katoh C, Yoshinaga K, Klein R, Kasai K, Tomiyama Y, Manabe O, et al. Quantification of regional myocardial blood flow estimation with three-dimensional dynamic rubidium-82 PET and modified spillover correction model. J Nucl Cardiol. 2012;19:763–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yoshinaga K, Tomiyama Y, Suzuki E, Tamaki N. Myocardial blood flow quantification using positron-emission tomography. Circ J. 2013;77:1662–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu YW, Naya M, Tsukamoto T, Komatsu H, Morita K, Yoshinaga K, et al. Heterogeneous reduction of myocardial oxidative metabolism in patients with ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy using C-11 acetate PET. Circ J. 2008;72:786–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katoh C, Morita K, Shiga T, Kubo N, Nakada K, Tamaki N. Improvement of algorithm for quantification of regional myocardial blood flow using 15O-water with PET. J Nucl Med. 2004;45:1908–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van den Hoff J, Burchert W, Borner AR, Fricke H, Kuhnel G, Meyer GJ, et al. [1-(11)C]Acetate as a quantitative perfusion tracer in myocardial PET. J Nucl Med. 2001;42:1174–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Buck A, Wolpers HG, Hutchins GD, Savas V, Mangner TJ, Nguyen N, et al. Effect of carbon-11-acetate recirculation on estimates of myocardial oxygen consumption by PET. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:1950–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Timmer SA, Lubberink M, Germans T, Gotte MJ, ten Berg JM, ten Cate FJ, et al. Potential of [11C]acetate for measuring myocardial blood flow: Studies in normal subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010;17:264–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manabe O, Yoshinaga K, Katoh C, Naya M, deKemp RA, Tamaki N. Repeatability of rest and hyperemic myocardial blood flow measurements with 82Rb dynamic PET. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:68–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herrero P, Markham J, Shelton ME, Bergmann SR. Implementation and evaluation of a two-compartment model for quantification of myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82 and positron emission tomography. Circ Res. 1992;70:496–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsukamoto T, Morita K, Naya M, Katoh C, Inubushi M, Kuge Y, et al. Myocardial flow reserve is influenced by both coronary artery stenosis severity and coronary risk factors in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Eur J Nucl Med. 2006;33:1150–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chan SY, Brunken RC, Phelps ME, Schelbert HR. Use of the metabolic tracer carbon-11-acetate for evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion. J Nucl Med. 1991;32:665–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun KT, Chen K, Huang SC, Buxton DB, Hansen HW, Kim AS, et al. Compartment model for measuring myocardial oxygen consumption using [1-11C]acetate. J Nucl Med. 1997;38:459–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burger C, Buck A. Requirements and implementation of a flexible kinetic modeling tool. J Nucl Med. 1997;38:1818–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klein LJ, Visser FC, Knaapen P, Peters JH, Teule GJ, Visser CA, et al. Carbon-11 acetate as a tracer of myocardial oxygen consumption. Eur J Nucl Med. 2001;28:651–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Naya M, Murthy VL, Blankstein R, Sitek A, Hainer J, Foster C, et al. Quantitative relationship between the extent and morphology of coronary atherosclerotic plaque and downstream myocardial perfusion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58:1807–16.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goldstein RA, Kirkeeide RL, Demer LL, Merhige M, Nishikawa A, Smalling RW, et al. Relation between geometric dimensions of coronary artery stenoses and myocardial perfusion reserve in man. J Clin Invest. 1987;79:1473–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoshinaga K, Katoh C, Noriyasu K, Iwado Y, Furuyama H, Ito Y, et al. Reduction of coronary flow reserve in areas with and without ischemia on stress perfusion imaging in patients with coronary artery disease: a study using oxygen 15-labeled water PET. J Nucl Cardiol. 2003;10:275–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    White CW, Wright CB, Doty DB, Hiratza LF, Eastham CL, Harrison DG, et al. Does visual interpretation of the coronary arteriogram predict the physiologic importance of a coronary stenosis? N Engl J Med. 1984;310:819–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Naya M, Di Carli MF. Myocardial perfusion PET/CT to evaluate known and suspected coronary artery disease. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2010;54:145–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Siegrist PT, Gaemperli O, Koepfli P, Schepis T, Namdar M, Valenta I, et al. Repeatability of cold pressor test-induced flow increase assessed with H(2)(15)O and PET. J Nucl Med. 2006;47:1420–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuki Mori
    • 1
  • Osamu Manabe
    • 2
  • Masanao Naya
    • 3
  • Yuuki Tomiyama
    • 2
  • Keiichiro Yoshinaga
    • 4
  • Keiichi Magota
    • 2
  • Noriko Oyama-Manabe
    • 5
  • Kenji Hirata
    • 2
  • Hiroyuki Tsutsui
    • 3
  • Nagara Tamaki
    • 2
  • Chietsugu Katoh
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Health SciencesHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Nuclear MedicineHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Molecular ImagingHokkaido University Graduate School of MedicineSapporoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Diagnostic and Interventional RadiologyHokkaido University HospitalSapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations