Annals of Nuclear Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 395–401

Ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT to diagnose recurrent colorectal cancer in patients with elevated CEA concentrations

  • Yukishige Kyoto
  • Mitsuru Momose
  • Chisato Kondo
  • Michio Itabashi
  • Shingo Kameoka
  • Kiyoko Kusakabe
Original Article



Elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) during follow-up suggest recurrence, which can be visualized by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Since the magnitude of CEA elevation reflects cancer volume, the ability of PET/CT to detect recurrence in patients with only mildly elevated CEA might be limited. However, the accuracy of PET/CT in detecting recurrence associated with elevated CEA has not been fully assessed. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT postoperatively relative to CEA levels among patients with CRC.


We visually assessed 75 PET/CT evaluations of 57 postoperative patients with CEA >5.0 ng/ml. Tumor volumes were also determined using image analysis software. The final diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathological findings, or at least on 6 months of clinical follow-up.


Two lung cancers were excluded and we finally analyzed data from 73 of the 75 PET/CT evaluations. Recurrences were diagnosed in 54 (prevalence 74%). The sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT to detect recurrence was 50/54 (93%) and 14/19 (74%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 91 and 78%, respectively, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.52 and 0.10, respectively. Values for the sensitivity of PET/CT were 88 and 95%, and those for specificity were 78 and 70%, at serum CEA concentrations of 5–10 and >10 ng/ml, respectively. Serum CEA (r = 0.500, p < 0.001) significantly correlated with cancer volumes.


The present findings showed that 18F-FDG PET/CT could accurately detect recurrent CRC irrespective of the elevated CEA concentration.


Positron emission tomography (PET) Recurrent colorectal cancer Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Tumor volume 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yukishige Kyoto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mitsuru Momose
    • 2
  • Chisato Kondo
    • 2
  • Michio Itabashi
    • 3
  • Shingo Kameoka
    • 3
  • Kiyoko Kusakabe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyJapan Self-Defense Forces Central HospitalTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear MedicineTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of SurgeryTokyo Women’s Medical UniversityTokyoJapan

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