Ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT to diagnose recurrent colorectal cancer in patients with elevated CEA concentrations
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Elevated levels of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) during follow-up suggest recurrence, which can be visualized by 18F-FDG PET/CT. Since the magnitude of CEA elevation reflects cancer volume, the ability of PET/CT to detect recurrence in patients with only mildly elevated CEA might be limited. However, the accuracy of PET/CT in detecting recurrence associated with elevated CEA has not been fully assessed. We retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT postoperatively relative to CEA levels among patients with CRC.
We visually assessed 75 PET/CT evaluations of 57 postoperative patients with CEA >5.0 ng/ml. Tumor volumes were also determined using image analysis software. The final diagnosis was confirmed based on histopathological findings, or at least on 6 months of clinical follow-up.
Two lung cancers were excluded and we finally analyzed data from 73 of the 75 PET/CT evaluations. Recurrences were diagnosed in 54 (prevalence 74%). The sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT to detect recurrence was 50/54 (93%) and 14/19 (74%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 91 and 78%, respectively, and the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.52 and 0.10, respectively. Values for the sensitivity of PET/CT were 88 and 95%, and those for specificity were 78 and 70%, at serum CEA concentrations of 5–10 and >10 ng/ml, respectively. Serum CEA (r = 0.500, p < 0.001) significantly correlated with cancer volumes.
The present findings showed that 18F-FDG PET/CT could accurately detect recurrent CRC irrespective of the elevated CEA concentration.
KeywordsPositron emission tomography (PET) Recurrent colorectal cancer Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Tumor volume
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