Influence of mild hyperglycemia on cerebral FDG distribution patterns calculated by statistical parametric mapping
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In clinical cerebral 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies, we sometimes encounter hyperglycemic patients with diabetes mellitus or patients who have not adhered to the fasting requirement. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mild hyperglycemia (plasma glucose range 110–160 mg/dl) on the cerebral FDG distribution patterns calculated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM).
We studied 19 healthy subjects (mean age 66.2 years). First, all the subjects underwent FDG-PET scans in the fasting condition. Then, 9 of the 19 subjects (mean age 64.3 years) underwent the second FDG-PET scans in the mild hyperglycemic condition. The alterations in the FDG-PET scans were investigated using SPM-and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses. We used three reference regions: (1) SPM global brain (SPMgb) used for SPM global mean calculation, (2) the gray and white matter region computed from magnetic resonance image (MRIgw), and (3) the cerebellar cortex (Cbll).
The FDG uptake calculated as the standardized uptake value (average) in SPMgb, MRIgw, and Cbll regions in the mild hyperglycemic condition was 42.7%, 41.3%, and 40.0%, respectively, of that observed in the fasting condition. In SPM analysis, the mild hyperglycemia was found to affect the cerebral distribution patterns of FDG. The FDG uptake was relatively decreased in the gray matter, mainly in the frontal, temporal, and parietal association cortices, posterior cingulate, and precuneus in both SPMgb-and MRIgw-reference-based analyses. When Cbll was adopted as the reference region, those decrease patterns disappeared. The FDG uptake was relatively increased in the white matter, mainly in the centrum semiovale in all the reference-based analyses.
It is noteworthy that the FDG distribution patterns were altered under mild hyperglycemia in SPM analysis. The decreased uptake patterns in SPMgb-(SPM default) and MRIgw-reference-based analyses resembled those observed in Alzheimer’s disease. Under mild hyperglycemia, we can recommend Cbll as the reference region to detect decreased uptake patterns. We should pay special attention to controlling the diet condition, monitoring hyperglycemia, and optimizing the reference region in SPM analysis, particularly in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer’s disease in clinical FDG-PET.
KeywordsFDG-PET Mild hyperglycemia Distribution pattern Statistical parametric mapping Alzheimer’s disease
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