Free Adult Internet Web Sites: How Prevalent Are Degrading Acts?
Russell (Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape, 1988) argued that essential features of pornography were the inclusion of more female than male nakedness and the portrayal of men in dominant roles. Utilizing a sample of 45 Internet adult web sites, a content analysis was conducted to see if free and easily available Internet adult videos may generally be described as pornography in line with Russell’s (1988) work. A majority of videos in our sample portrayed more female than male nakedness as well as much higher representations of men in sexually dominant positions. The prevalence of violence in this sample of video and the presence of various acts (name calling, ejaculating on the face, submission, and eagerness to participate in any sex act) were also content analyzed and used to establish prevalent themes. We found a significant difference in the likelihood of a video having a theme of exploitation or domination and whether or not the video portrayed one of these acts. If the video had a theme of exploitation or domination, 92% of the videos also included a minimum of one of these acts while those videos that had themes of reciprocity or autoeroticism were significantly less likely to contain such acts. This study contributes to the literature on gender and pornography by examining issues of degradation and power relations within the context of a rapidly expanding cybersex industry.
KeywordsPornography Degradation Internet
- 2.Barron, M., & Kimmel, M. (2000). Sexual violence in three pornographic media. Journal of Sex Research, May 1–25.Google Scholar
- 3.Boies, S. (2002). University students uses of and reactions to online sexual information and entertainment: Links to online and offline sexual behavior. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 11, 77–89.Google Scholar
- 4.Brownmiller, S. (1975). Against our will. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
- 7.Check, J., & Guloien, T. (1989). Reported proclivity for coercive sex following repeated exposure to sexually violent pornography, nonviolent dehumanizing pornography, and erotica. In D. Zillmann & J. Bryant (Eds.), Pornography: Research advances, policy considerations (pp. 159–184). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- 8.Cooper, A. (2004). Online sexual activity in the millennium. Contemporary Sexuality, 38, 1–7.Google Scholar
- 15.Dines, G., Jensen, R., & Russo, A. (1998). Pornography: The production and consumption of inequality. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- 17.Dworkin, A. (1989). Pornography: Men possessing women. New York: Dutton.Google Scholar
- 19.Glascock, J., & Larose, R. (1993). Dial-a-porn recordings: The role of the female participant in male sexual fantasies. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 37, 313–325.Google Scholar
- 23.Jensen, R. (2007). Getting off: Pornography and the end of masculinity. Cambridge: South End Press.Google Scholar
- 25.MacKinnon, C. A., & Dworkin, A. (1988). Pornography and civil rights: A new day for women’s sexuality. Minneapolis: Organizing Against Pornography.Google Scholar
- 30.Paul, P. (2005). Pornified: How pornography is damaging our lives, our relationships, and our families. New York: Henry Holt and Company, LLC.Google Scholar
- 32.Rimm, M. (1995). Marketing pornography on the information superhighway: A survey of 917, 410 images, descriptions, short stories, animations downloaded 8.5 million times by consumers in over 2000 cities in Forty Countries, Provinces, and Territories. Georgetown Law Journal, 83, 1849–1934.Google Scholar
- 33.Ropelato, J. (n.d.). Internet Pornography Statistics. Internet Filter Review. Retrieved on November 5, 2008. (http://www.internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics.html).
- 34.Russell, D. (1998). Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny, and rape. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- 36.Web Pro News (2004). Web Porn More Popular Than Search Engines. http://archive.enterprisewebpro.com/enterprisewebpro-6120040604WebPornMorePopularThanSearchEngines.html.
- 37.Whisnant, R. (2004). Understanding systems of prostitution. In C. Stark & R. Whisnant (Eds.), Not for sale: Feminists resisting prostitution, pornography (pp. 15–27). North Melbourne: Spinifex Press Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
- 38.Zillmann, D., & Brosius, H. (2000). Exemplification in communication: The influence of case reports on the perception of issues. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar