Earth Science Informatics

, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 151–165 | Cite as

Application of a new computer program for tectonic discrimination of Cambrian to Holocene clastic sediments

  • Surendra P. Verma
  • Lorena Díaz-González
  • John S. Armstrong-Altrin
Research Article

Abstract

TecSand is a new Java software that is used for deciphering the tectonic setting of clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks through two new multidimensional discrimination diagrams. For each sample, TecSand calculates four complex discriminant functions: DF1m1 and DF2m1 for the high-silica diagram and DF1m2 and DF2m2 for the low-silica diagram, each representing linear combinations of log-ratios of all major elements. These functions determine the position of each sample within island or continental arc, continental rift, and collision/convergent settings. The program also calculates the probability values for the three tectonic fields. TecSand provides a “ready for publication” report for each locality, including the adjusted major elements, log-transformed variables, DF1 and DF2 results, and probability values for individual samples. Validations from samples of known tectonic settings, evaluation of chemical changes, and applications to Precambrian clastic sediments have previously been demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, we illustrate the use of TecSand in 10 case studies covering ages from the Early Cambrian to the Holocene. The results obtained from these two diagrams were not only mutually consistent but also with other geological constraints. As an innovation, TecSand provides an overall synthesis of the two diagrams as total percent probability values. Comparison of the results of this study with the previously published tectonic discrimination diagrams reveals that two recent multidimensional discrimination diagrams are more efficient in discriminating tectonic settings. Although TecSand does provide graphics, which can be imported and modified in commercial software, plotting of the sample diagram is no longer required.

Keywords

Sedimentary rocks Discrimination diagrams Tectonic setting Arc Rift Collision/convergent 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by DGAPA-PAPIIT grant RN104813. Lorena Díaz-González also acknowledges PROMEP support to the project “Estadística computacional para el tratamiento de datos experimentales” (PROMEP/103-5/10/7332). John S. Armstrong-Altrin expresses his gratefulness to the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar. y Limnología, UNAM, Institutional (no. 616) and DGAPA-PAPIIT IA101213 projects. We are grateful to the editor and anonymous reviewers for numerous helpful comments which enabled us to improve our presentation.

References

  1. Agrawal S, Verma SP (2007) Comment on "tectonic classification of basalts with classification trees" by Pieter vermeesch (2006). Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:3388–3390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitchison J (1981) A new approach to null correlations of proportions. Math Geol 13:175–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitchison J (1984) Statistical analysis of geochemical compositions. Math Geol 16:531–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aitchison J (1986) The statistical analysis of compositional data. Chapman and Hall, London, UK, 416 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Ali S, Stattegger K, Garbe-Schönberg D, Kuhnt W, Kluth O, Jabour H (2014a) Petrography and geochemistry of Cretaceous to Quaternary siliciclastic rocks in the tarfaya basin, SW morocco: implications for tectonic setting, weathering, and provenance. Int J Earth Sci 103(1):265–280Google Scholar
  6. Ali S, Stattegger K, Garbe-Schönberg D, Frank M, Kraft S, Kuhnt W (2014b) The provenance of Cretaceous to Quaternary sediments in the tarfaya basin, SW morocco: evidence from trace element geochemistry and radiogenic Nd-Sr isotopes. J Afr Earth Sci 90:64–76Google Scholar
  7. Arai S (1992) Chemistry of chromian spinel in volcanic rocks as a potential guide to magma chemistry. Miner Mag 56(383):173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong-Altrin JS (2015) Evaluation of two multidimensional discrimination diagrams from beach and deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico and their application to Precambrian clastic sedimentary rocks. Int Geol Rev 57(11–12):1446–1461Google Scholar
  9. Armstrong-Altrin JS, Verma SP (2005) Critical evaluation of six tectonic setting discrimination diagrams using geochemical data of Neogene sediments from known tectonic setting. Sed Geol 177(1–2):115–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhatia MR (1983) Plate tectonics and geochemical composition of sandstones. J Geol 91(6):611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhatia MR, Crook AW (1986) Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins. Contrib Mineral Petrol 92(2):181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blanco G, Abre P, Rajesh HM, Germs GJB (2014) Geochemistry and heavy minerals analyses on “black sands” of the lower Cambrian fish river subgroup (Nama group, Namibia). S Afr J Geol 117(1):129–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruns B, Littke R (2015) Lithological dependency and anisotropy of vitrinite reflectance in high rank sedimentary rocks of the ibbenbüren area, NW-Germany: implications for the tectonic and thermal evolution of the lower Saxony basin. Int J Coal Geol 137:124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buccianti A (2013) Is compositional data analysis a way to see beyond the Illusion? Comput Geosci 50:165–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cai K, Sun M, Xiao W, Buslov MM, Yuan C, Zhao G, Long X (2014) Zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic composition of granitoids in Russian Altai mountain, central Asian orogenic belt. Am J Sci 314:580–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chayes F (1960) On correlation between variables of constant sum. J Geophys Res 65:4185–4193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chayes F (1978) Ratio correlation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, A manual for students of petrology and geochemistry, 99 pGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen M, Sun M, Cai K, Buslov MM, Zhao G, Rubanova ES (2014) Geochemical study of the Cambrian-Ordovician meta-sedimentary rocks from the northern Altai-Mongolian terrane, northwestern central Asian orogenic belt: implications on the provenance and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci 96:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cullers RL (2000) The geochemistry of shales, siltstones and sandstones of Pennsylvanian - Permian age, Colorado, U.S.A.: implications for provenance and metamorphic studies. Lithos 51(3):181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dickinson WR (1985) Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones. Proven Aren 148:333–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Egozcue JJ, Pawlowsky-Glahn V, Mateu-Figueras G, Barceló-Vidal C (2003) Isometric logratio transformations for compositional data analysis. Math Geol 35:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Etemad-Saeed N, Hosseini-Barzi M, Armstrong-Altrin JS (2011) Petrography and geochemistry of clastic sedimentary rocks as evidence for provenance of the lower Cambrian Lalun Formation, Posht-e-badam block, central Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 61:142–159Google Scholar
  23. Kamenetsky VS, Crawford AJ, Meffre S (2001) Factors controlling chemistry of magmatic spinel: an empirical study of associated olivine, Cr-spinel and melt inclusions from primitive rocks. J Petrol 42(4):655–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kurk NN, Rudnev SN, Vladimirov AG, Shokalsky SP, Kovach VP, Serov PA, Volkova NI (2011) Early-middle Paleozoic granitoids in Gorny Altai, Russia: implications for continental crust history and magma sources. J Asian Earth Sci 42:928–948Google Scholar
  25. Linnemann UG (1995) The Neoproterozoic terranes of Saxony (Germany). Precambrian Res 73:235–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Linnemann U, Romer RL (2002) The Cadomian Orogeny in Saxo-thuringia, Germany: geochemical and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic characterization of marginal basins with constraints to geotectonic setting and provenance. Tectonophysics 352:33–64Google Scholar
  27. Ohta T (2008) Measuring and adjusting the weathering and hydraulic sorting effects for rigorous provenance analysis of sedimentary rocks: a case study from the Jurassic Ashikita Group, south-west Japan. Sedimentology 55(6):1687–1701Google Scholar
  28. Pawlowsky-Glahn V, Egozcue JJ (2006) Compositional data and their analysis: an introduction. In: Buccianti A, Mateu-Figueras G, Pawlowsky-Glahn V (eds) Compositional data analysis in the geosciences: from theory to practice. The Geological Society of London Special Publication, London, pp. 1–10Google Scholar
  29. Pearce JA, Norry MJ (1979) Petrogenetic implications of Ti, Zr, Y, and Nb variations in volcanic rocks. Contrib Mineral Petrol 69(1):33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pearce JA, Harris NBW, Tindle AG (1984) Trace element discrimination diagrams for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks. J Petrol 25(4):956–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pearson K (1897) Mathematical contribution to the theory of evolution. - on a form of spurious correlation which may arise when indices are used in the measurement of organs. Proc Royal Soc London 60:489–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Perri F (2014) Composition, provenance and source weathering of Mesozoic sandstones from western-central Mediterranean Alpine chains. J Afr Earth Sci 91:32–43Google Scholar
  33. Perri F, Ohta T (2014) Paleoclimatic conditions and paleoweathering processes on Mesozoic continental redbeds from western-central Mediterranean alpine chains. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl Palaeoecol 395:144–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Perri F, Critelli S, Dominici R, Muto F, Tripodi V, Ceramicola S (2012) Provenance and accommodation pathways of late Quaternary sediments in the deep-water northern Ionian basin, southern Italy. Sediment Geol 280:244–259Google Scholar
  35. Perri F, Borrelli L, Gullá G, Critelli S (2014) Chemical and minero-petrographic features of Plio-Pleistocene fine-grained sediments in Calabria, southern Italy. Ital J Geosci 133(1):101–115Google Scholar
  36. Perri F, Dominici R, Critelli S (2015) Stratigraphy, composition and provenance of argillaceous marls from the Calcare di Base Formation, Rossano basin (northeastern Calabria). Geol Mag 152:193–209Google Scholar
  37. Quanren Y, Shanling G, Zongqi W, Jiliang L, Wenjiao X, Quanling H, Zhen Y, Haihong C (2002) Geochemical constraints of sediments on the provenance, depositional environment and tectonic setting of the songliao prototype basin. Acta Geol Sin-Engl 76(4):455–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rachold V, Brumsack H-J (2001) Inorganic geochemistry of Albian sediments from the lower Saxony basin NW Germany: palaeoenvironmental constraints and orbital cycles. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl Palaeoecol 174(1–3):121–143Google Scholar
  39. Roser BP, Korsch RJ (1986) Determination of tectonic setting of sandstone-mudstone suites using SiO2 content and K2O/Na2O ratio. J Geol 94(5):635–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Roser BP, Korsch RJ (1988) Provenance signatures of sandstone-mudstone suites determined using discrimination function analysis of major element data. Chem Geol 67:119–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ruiz GMH, Sebti S, Negro F, Saddiqi O, Frizon de Lamotte D, Stockli D, Foeken J, Stuart F, Barbarand J, Schaer JP (2010) From central Atlantic continental rift to Neogene uplift – western Anti-Atlas (morocco). Terra Nova 23(1):35–41Google Scholar
  42. Saxena A, Pandit MK (2012) Geochemistry of Hindoli Group (Morocco) metasediments, SE Aravalli craton, NW India: implications for palaeoweathering and provenance. J Geol Soc India 79(3):267–278Google Scholar
  43. Tao H, Wang Q, Yang X, Jiang L (2013) Provenance and tectonic setting of late carboniferous clastic rocks in west Junggar, Xinjiang, China: a case from the Hala-Alat mountains. J Asian Earth Sci 64:210–222Google Scholar
  44. Tao H, Sun S, Wang Q, Yang X, Jiang L (2014) Petrography and geochemistry of lower Carboniferous greywacke and mudstones in northeast junggar, China: implications for provenance, source weathering, and tectonic setting. J Asian Earth Sci 87:11–25Google Scholar
  45. Verma SP (2005) Basic statistics for handling of experimental data (geochemometrics) (in Spanish). Mexico, D.F, UNAM, p. 186Google Scholar
  46. Verma SP (2010) Statistical evaluation of bivariate, ternary and discriminant function tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams. Turk J Earth Sci 19(2):185–238Google Scholar
  47. Verma SP (2012) Application of multi-dimensional discrimination diagrams and probability calculations to acid rocks from Portugal and Spain. Comunic Geol 99:79–93Google Scholar
  48. Verma SP (2015) Monte Carlo comparison of conventional ternary diagrams with new log-ratio bivariate diagrams and an example of tectonic discrimination. Geochem J 49:393–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Verma SP, Agrawal S (2011) New tectonic discrimination diagrams for basic and ultrabasic volcanic rocks through log-transformed ratios of high field strength elements and implications for petrogenetic processes. Rev Mex Cienc Geol 28(1):24–44Google Scholar
  50. Verma SP, Armstrong-Altrin JS (2013) New multi-dimensional diagrams for tectonic discrimination of siliciclastic sediments and their application to Precambrian basins. Chem Geol 355:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Verma SK, Pandarinath K, Verma SP (2012) Statistical evaluation of tectonomagmatic discrimination diagrams for granitic rocks and proposal of new discriminant-function-based multi-dimensional diagrams for acid rocks. Int Geol Rev 54(3):325–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Voigt T, Reicherter K, von Eynatten H, Littke R, Voigt S, Kley J (2008) Sedimentation during basin inversion. In: Littke R, Bayer U, Gajewski D, Nelskamp S (eds) Dynamics of complex intracontinental basins. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 211–232Google Scholar
  53. Wang W, Zhou M-F (2013) Petrological and geochemical constraints on provenance, paleoweathering, and tectonic setting of the Neoproterozoic sedimentary basin in the eastern Jiangnan orogen, south China. J Sed Res 83(11):975–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wood DA (1980) The application of a Th–Hf–Ta diagram to problems of tectonomagmatic classification and to establishing the nature of crustal contamination of basaltic lavas of the British tertiary volcanic province. Earth Planet Sci Lett 50(1):11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xu Y, Du Y, Yang J, Huang H (2010) Sedimentary geochemistry and provenance of the lower and middle Devonian Laojunshan Formation, the north Qilian orogenic belt. Sci China Earth Sci 53(3):356–367Google Scholar
  56. Zaid SM (2015) Geochemistry of sandstones from the Pliocene Gabir Formation, north Marsa Alam, Red Sea, Egypt: implication for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting. J Afr Earth Sci 102:1–17Google Scholar
  57. Zhang K-J (2004) Secular geochemical variations of the lower cretaceous siliciclastic rocks from central Tibet (China) indicate a tectonic transition from continental collision to back-arc rifting. Earth Planet Sci Lett 229(1–2):73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Surendra P. Verma
    • 1
  • Lorena Díaz-González
    • 2
  • John S. Armstrong-Altrin
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto de Energías RenovablesUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoTemixcoMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y AplicadasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MorelosCuernavacaMexico
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Procesos Oceánicos y CosterosUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMéxico D.FMexico

Personalised recommendations