Role of resilience for the association between trait hostility and depressive symptoms in Japanese company workers

  • Eisho Yoshikawa
  • Daisuke NishiEmail author
  • Masami Kashimura
  • Yutaka J. Matsuoka


Depression in the workplace is prevalent and can result in substantial negative effects. Many studies have documented the association between trait hostility and depressive symptoms. It has been demonstrated that resilience modulates the association between trauma or life event, and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interaction among resilience, trait hostility, and life events on depressive symptoms in company workers. Participants were 575 Japanese workers at three worksites. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, trait hostility with Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), resilience with the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) and whether participants had experienced life events within the past month. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the interaction of hostility, resilience, and life events on depression. Post hoc analysis using the Johnson-Neyman technique were conducted. Regression analysis showed that the model was significant: R2 = 0. .470, F(7, 567) =44.5, p < .001. There were significant two-way interactions (trait hostility score × RS-14 score (B = −0.025 SE = .006, t = −4.484, p < .0001) and (life events × RS-14: B = −0.150 SE = .069, t = −2.271, p < .0001). There was a significant positive association between trait hostility and depressive symptoms (RS-14 score < 71.7 and a significant negative association(RS-14 > 85.1). and that that there were no significant association between life event and depressive symptoms (RS-14 > 75.9). The results of this study suggest that an association between trait hostility and depressive symptoms and an association between life event and depressive symptoms, depended on resilience.


Depressive symptoms Resilience Trait hostility Life events Workplace 



The authors thank Koichi Iwata and Toshinari Saeki for their cooperation with the research. We also express special thanks to Mss. Akutsu and Kamoshida for data management and to all participants in this study. Dr. Yoshikawa has received research support from a Research Promotion Grant of Nippon Medical School and has received lecture fees from Dainippon Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Dr. Nishi has received research grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, and a manuscript fee from Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd.

Dr. Matsuoka has received research support from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST; an Intramural Research Grant for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders from the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Japan, a grant from Pfizer Health Research Foundation; and lecture fees from Ono Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Mochida Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., Suntory Wellness Ltd., DHA & EPA Association, and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.


This study was supported by grants from the Foundation for Total Health Promotion and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. All participants have provided written informed consent.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eisho Yoshikawa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daisuke Nishi
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Masami Kashimura
    • 6
  • Yutaka J. Matsuoka
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychiatryNippon Medical School Tama Nagayama HospitalTama CityJapan
  2. 2.Department of NeuropsychiatryNippon Medical SchoolBunkyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Mental Health, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryNational Disaster Medical CenterTachikawaJapan
  5. 5.Department of Public Mental Health Policy, Graduate School of MedicineThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of Medical PsychologyNippon Medical SchoolMusashinoJapan
  7. 7.Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health SciencesNational Cancer Center JapanChuo-kuJapan

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