Measuring forgiveness among Iranian adolescents: Evaluation of psychometric properties of Persian version of transgression-related interpersonal motivations inventory

  • Farshad Lavfpour NouriEmail author
  • Saadi Lotfali
  • Sara Sahranavard
  • Fatemeh Amiri
  • Zahra Azarhoush Fatideh
  • Nafiseh Azarhoush Fatideh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Inventory-18 among an Iranian sample. The instrument has been used and studied mainly on adult samples in different cultures. The current study seeks to expand the application of this questionnaire to include Iranian adolescents. A total of 412 students within from 13-to-18-year-old age range participated in this study. Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations, Anger Rumination Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, and Batson Empathy Adjectives were the data collection instruments used in this study. CFA and EFA were conducted for testing the factorial structure and its psychometric properties and reliability were examined. EFA revealed three factors and confirmatory factor analysis supported the model. The TRIM showed good internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alphas for the subscales ranged from .78 to .84 and .90 for the total. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale was indicated by significant relationships between its underlying dimensions with empathy, anger rumination, and trait forgiveness. The findings of this study showed that TRIM-18 is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring forgiveness in adolescents, and Iranian researchers and clinicians can use this instrument for therapeutic and research purposes.


Forgiveness Interpersonal transgression Psychometric properties Adolescents 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CounselingKharazmi UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Cognitive PsychologyInstitute for Cognitive Science Studies (ICSS)TehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Psychology, Faculty of MedicineBirjand University of Medical ScienceBirjandIran
  4. 4.Department of CounselingFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  5. 5.Department CounselingAllameh Tabatabai UniversityTehranIran

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