Psychometric evaluation of the Italian version of Orbach & Mikulincer mental pain scale in a non-clinical sample

  • Eliana Tossani
  • Maria Grazia Ricci Garotti
  • Mario Mikulincer
  • Sara Giovagnoli
  • Gloria Calzolari
  • Giulia Landi
  • Silvana Grandi


The main goal of the study was to evaluate Orbach’s multidimensional model of mental pain in Italy, while constructing a reliable and valid Italian version of the 40-item Orbach and Mikulincer Mental Pain scale (OMMP) in a non-clinical sample. The sample consisted of 544 Italian adults. Findings indicated that the original 8-factor structure of the OMMP scale was not validated in our Italian version of the scale. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 31-item solution, with five main factors (Irreversibility, Lack of control and Freezing, Narcissistic wounds, Emotional flooding, Emptiness). Women scored higher than men in emotional flooding and lack of control, age was inversely related to the reported level of mental pain, and participants who were married or had a long, stable couple relationship showed lesser emotional suffering than singles. This study has shown the OMMP to be a valid and reliable scale for assessing mental pain in the general population. Future studies are needed in order to examine the replicability of the 5-factor model as well as the validity of the OMMP factors in clinical samples in the Italian context.


Mental pain Orbach and Mikulincer mental pain scale (OMMP) Psychometrics Scale validation 



We would like to thank Gloria Calzolari for her help in data collection and Alessandra Cola for language consulting. The authors have no competing interests to report.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Psychosomatics and Clinimetrics, Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Center HerzlyiaHerzliyaIsrael

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