Advertisement

Psychometric evaluation of the Italian version of Orbach & Mikulincer mental pain scale in a non-clinical sample

  • Eliana Tossani
  • Maria Grazia Ricci Garotti
  • Mario Mikulincer
  • Sara Giovagnoli
  • Gloria Calzolari
  • Giulia Landi
  • Silvana Grandi
Article
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

The main goal of the study was to evaluate Orbach’s multidimensional model of mental pain in Italy, while constructing a reliable and valid Italian version of the 40-item Orbach and Mikulincer Mental Pain scale (OMMP) in a non-clinical sample. The sample consisted of 544 Italian adults. Findings indicated that the original 8-factor structure of the OMMP scale was not validated in our Italian version of the scale. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded a 31-item solution, with five main factors (Irreversibility, Lack of control and Freezing, Narcissistic wounds, Emotional flooding, Emptiness). Women scored higher than men in emotional flooding and lack of control, age was inversely related to the reported level of mental pain, and participants who were married or had a long, stable couple relationship showed lesser emotional suffering than singles. This study has shown the OMMP to be a valid and reliable scale for assessing mental pain in the general population. Future studies are needed in order to examine the replicability of the 5-factor model as well as the validity of the OMMP factors in clinical samples in the Italian context.

Keywords

Mental pain Orbach and Mikulincer mental pain scale (OMMP) Psychometrics Scale validation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Gloria Calzolari for her help in data collection and Alessandra Cola for language consulting. The authors have no competing interests to report.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2003). Practice guideline for the assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviors. Arlington: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Baltes, P. B. (2003). Extending longevity: Dignity gain - or dignity drain? Max Planck Research, 3, 14–19.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, A. E. (2000). Marital trajectories and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41(4), 451–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry, D. T., Pilver, C., Potenza, M. N., & Desai, R. A. (2012). Prevalence and psychiatric correlates of pain interference among men and women in the general population. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(1), 118–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.09.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bauman, Z. (2000). Liquid modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bauman, Z. (2001). The individualized society. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F. (1990). Suicide as escape from self. Psychological Review, 97(1), 90–113.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.97.1.90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolger, E. (1999). Grounded theory analysis of emotional pain. Psychotherapy Research, 9(3), 342–362.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10503309912331332801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carstensen, L. L., Fung, H. H., & Charles, S. T. (2003). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and Emotion, 27(2), 103–123.  https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1024569803230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Vaus, D. A. (2002). Marriage and mental health. Family Matters, 62, 26–32.Google Scholar
  12. Diener, E., Gohm, C. L., Suh, E., & Oishi, S. (2000). Similarity of the relations between marital status and subjective well-being across cultures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(4), 419–436.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031004001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ducasse, D., Holden, R. R., Boyer, L., Artéro, S., Calati, R., Guillaume, S., et al. (2017). Psychological pain in suicidality: A Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.16r10732
  14. Fertuck, E. A., Karan, E., & Stanley, B. (2016). The specificity of mental pain in borderline personality disorder compared to depressive disorders and healthy controls. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 3(2), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40479-016-0036-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fleming, M. (2006). Distinction between mental pain and psychic suffering as separate entities in the patient's experience. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 15(4), 195–200.  https://doi.org/10.1080/08037060500522754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Frankl, V. E. (1966). What is meant by meaning? Journal of Existentialism, 7(25), 21–28.Google Scholar
  17. Gelatt, H. B. (1993). Future sense: Creating the future. The Futurist, 27(5), 9–13.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.50.2.165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guimarães, R., Fleming, M., & Cardoso, M. F. (2014). Validation of the Orbach & Mikulincer Mental Pain Scale (OMMP) on a drug addicted population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 49(3), 405–415.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-013-0751-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gvion, Y., Horesh, N., Levi-Belz, Y., Fischel, T., Treves, I., Weiser, M., et al. (2014). Aggression-impulsivity, mental pain, and communication difficulties in medically serious and medically non-serious suicide attempters. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(1), 40–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.09.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hutcheson, G. D., & Sofroniou, N. (1999). The multivariate social scientist: Introductory statistics using generalized linear models. London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kuhl, J. (1981). Motivational and functional helplessness: The moderating effect of state versus action orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40(1), 155–170.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.40.1.155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kuhl, J. (1992). A theory of self-regulation: Action versus state orientation self-discrimination and some applications. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 41(2), 97–129.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1992.tb00688.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Levi, Y., Horesh, N., Fischel, T., Treves, I., Or, E., & Apter, A. (2008). Mental pain and its communication in medically serious suicide attempts: An “impossible situation”. Journal of Affective Disorders, 111(2–3), 244–250.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2008.02.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Maltsberger, J. T. (2004). The descent into suicide. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 85(3), 653–668.  https://doi.org/10.1516/002075704774200799.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Marks, N. F., & Lambert, J. D. (1998). Marital status continuity and change among young and midlife adults: Longitudinal effects on psychological well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 19(6), 652–686.  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251398019006001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mee, S., Bunney, B. G., Reist, C., Potkin, S. G., & Bunney, W. E. (2006). Psychological pain: A review of evidence. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40(8), 680–690.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.03.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Meerwijk, E. L., & Weiss, S. J. (2011). Toward a unifying definition of psychological pain. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 16(5), 402–412.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2011.572044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meerwijk, E. L., Chesla, C. A., & Weiss, S. J. (2014). Psychological pain and reduced resting state heart rate variability in adults with a history of depression. Psychophysiology, 51(3), 247–256.  https://doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ohana, I., Golander, H., & Barak, Y. (2014). Balancing psychache and resilience in aging holocaust survivors. International Psychogeriatrics, 26, 929–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Orbach, I. (2003). Mental pain and suicide. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, 40(3), 191–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Orbach, I., Mikulincer, M., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., & Sirota, P. (2003a). Mental pain and its relationship to suicidality and life meaning. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 33(3), 231–241.  https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.33.3.231.23213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Orbach, I., Mikulincer, M., Sirota, P., & Gilboa-Schechtman, E. (2003b). Mental pain: a multidimensional operationalization and definition. Suicide and Life-threatening Behavior, 33(3), 219–230.  https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.33.3.219.23219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sandler, J. (1962). Psychology and psychoanalysis. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 35, 91–100.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1962.tb00507.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Scheibe, S., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2009). Effects of regulating emotions on cognitive performance: What is costly for young adults is not so costly for older adults. Psychology and Aging, 24(1), 217–223.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013807.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Shelef, L., Fruchter, E., Hassidim, A., & Zalsman, G. (2015). Emotional regulation of mental pain as moderator of suicidal ideation in military settings. European Psychiatry, 30(6), 765–769.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.12.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Shneidman, E. S. (1993). Suicide as psychache: A clinical approach to self-destructive behaviour. Northvale: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, M. E. (2006). Marriage and mental health. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 12, 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Soumani, A., Damigos, D., Oulis, P., Masdrakis, V., Ploumpidis, D., Mavreas, V., & Konstantakopoulos, G. (2011). Mental pain and suicide risk: Application of the greek version of the mental pain and the tolerance of mental pain scale. Psychiatriki, 22(4), 330–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tossani, E. (2013). The concept of mental pain. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 82, 67–73.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000343003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Trent Haines, R., Jackson, A. D., & Thomas, E. L. (2015). Evaluating the Orbach Mikulincer mental pain scale among late adolescent and early adult African Americans: A Rasch analysis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 36(10), 761–772.  https://doi.org/10.3109/01612840.2015.1028118.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Verrocchio, M. C., Carrozzino, D., Marchetti, D., Andreasson, K., Fulcheri, M., & Bech, P. (2016). Mental pain and suicide: A systematic review of the literature. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7(108).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00108.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Psychosomatics and Clinimetrics, Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Interdisciplinary Center HerzlyiaHerzliyaIsrael

Personalised recommendations