Development and preliminary validation of the 20-item Kaufman domains of Creativity Scale for use with Malaysian populations

  • Chee-Seng Tan
  • Soon-Aun Tan
  • Siew-May Cheng
  • Intan Hashimah Mohd Hashim
  • Anna Wen-Huey Ong


The 50-item Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scale (K-DOCS; Kaufman Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts, 6(4), 298-308, 2012) is a relatively new domain-specific self-report scale designed to assess the five different domains of creativity. However, a shorter form of the scale is preferable to reduce participants’ burden. The present research addresses the development of a shorter 20-item K-DOCS (20-K-DOCS) to be used on Malaysian undergraduates across three studies (N = 1409). On the basis of past findings, the four items with the highest factor loading for each of the five domains were extracted to construct the 20-K-DOCS in Study 1. Exploratory factor analysis on the 20 items showed support to the theoretical five-factor structure. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine and compare the 20-K-DOCS with the parent form of K-DOCS and other competing models. Results indicated that the 20-K-DOCS were superior to all the alternative models. In Study 3, the factorial structure of the 20-K-DOCS was further examined. The five-factor model was supported. Moreover, the 20-K-DOCS showed good internal consistency and acceptable convergence with creative self-efficacy and self-rated creativity. The findings of this study strengthen the evidence that the 20-K-DOCS is a psychometrically equivalent short form of the original K-DOCS. Researchers and educators may consider this brief measurement to assess the five different domains of students’ creativity.


Kaufman domains of creativity scale Self-report Domain-specific Malaysia Factor analysis 



The authors would like to thank Drs. James C. Kaufman and Alexander McKay for their feedback and helpful information throughout the development of this manuscript.


This project was funded by the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (IPSR/RMC/UTARRF/2015-C1/T01) awarded to the first author.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and CounsellingUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia
  2. 2.PF-050, FAS UTARJalan Universiti, Bandar BaratKamparMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Languages and LinguisticsUniversiti Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Social ScienceUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia

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