Advertisement

A bifactor analysis of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale - Short Form (DERS-SF) in a sample of adolescents and adults

  • Helena MoreiraEmail author
  • Maria João Gouveia
  • Maria Cristina Canavarro
Article
  • 25 Downloads

Abstract

The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) is a measure of emotion regulation that has been extensively used in research and clinical settings, both with adolescents and adults. However, its length has been recognized as an important limitation. In addition, its adequacy as a multidimensional measure and the utility and interpretability of the Awareness subscale has been questioned. The goal of this study is to contribute to the clarification of these issues through the examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of a short form of the DERS in a large sample of Portuguese adolescents and adults from the community. Two studies were conducted. The first study comprised 1314 adults and the second study comprised 612 adolescents, who completed the DERS-SF and additional measures to assess validity evidence for DERS-SF scores in relation to other relevant variables (self-compassion, attachment orientations, anxiety and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness, perceived stress, emotion suppression, and quality of life). Several models were examined in two studies as well as bifactor model-based psychometric indices. In both studies, bifactor models, particularly the one that excluded the Awareness items, exhibited a good fit to the data. ECV and OmegaH indices suggest a strong general factor of emotion dysregulation and do not support individual use of the Objectives, Strategies, Impulse, and Nonacceptance subscales. The DERS-SF scores correlated with the other measures as expected. Our findings suggest that the Awareness subscale should be excluded when computing the DERS-SF total score and that the total score can be considered essentially unidimensional. This study supports the use of a total score to assess emotion dysregulation but does not support the use of most subscale scores.

Keywords

Difficulties in emotion regulation scale Short form DERS-SF Emotion regulation Bifactor model Adults Adolescents 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under Grant [SFRH/BPD/70063/2010].

Funding

This study was funded by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology under Grant [Grant number SFRH/BPD/70063/2010.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52(3), 317–332.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, L. M., Reilly, E. E., Gorrell, S., Schaumberg, K., & Anderson, D. A. (2016). Gender-based differential item function for the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 87–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.12.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., & Orcutt, H. K. (2012). An examination of the latent structure of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34(3), 382–392.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9280-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., Hannan, S. M., & Orcutt, H. K. (2016). Addressing psychometric limitations of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale through item modification. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 298–309.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2015.1091774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barlow, M. R., Goldsmith Turow, R. E., & Gerhart, J. (2017). Trauma appraisals, emotion regulation difficulties, and self-compassion predict posttraumatic stress symptoms following childhood abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 65, 37–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2017.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benfer, N., Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., & Rogers, T. A. (2018). Factor structure and incremental validity of the original and modified versions of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 1-11.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2018.1492927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berking, M., & Wupperman, P. (2012). Emotion regulation and mental health: Recent findings, current challenges, and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25(2), 128–134.  https://doi.org/10.1097/YCO.0b013e3283503669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjureberg, J., Ljotsson, B., Tull, M. T., Hedman, E., Sahlin, H., Lundh, L. G., et al. (2016). Development and validation of a brief version of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale: The DERS-16. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38(2), 284–296.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9514-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonifay, W. E., Reise, S. P., Scheines, R., & Meijer, R. R. (2015). When are multidimensional data unidimensional enough for structural equation modeling? An evaluation of the DETECT multidimensionality index. Structural Equation Modeling, 22(4), 504–516.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2014.938596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brockmeyer, T., Skunde, M., Wu, M., Bresslein, E., Rudofsky, G., Herzog, W., et al. (2014). Difficulties in emotion regulation across the spectrum of eating disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 55(3), 565–571.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.12.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  15. Carvalho, C., Cunha, M., Cherpe, S., Galhardo, A., & Couto, C. (2015). Validation of a Portuguese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for children (CES- DC). Revista Portuguesa de Investigação Comportamental e Social, 1(2), 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Castilho, P., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, J. (2015). Evaluating the multifactor structure of the long and short versions of the self-compassion scale in a clinical sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 71(9), 856–870.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chen, F. F., West, S. G., & Sousa, K. H. (2006). A comparison of bifactor and second-order models of quality of life. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 41(2), 189–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cho, Y., & Hong, S. (2013). The new factor structure of the Korean version of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (K-DERS) incorporating method factor. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(3), 192–201.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0748175613484033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cisler, J. M., & Olatunji, B. O. (2012). Emotion regulation and anxiety disorders. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14(3), 182–187.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-012-0262-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Cisler, J. M., Olatunji, B. O., Feldner, M. T., & Forsyth, J. P. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32(1), 68–82.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-009-9161-1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  22. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–396.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cole, P. M., Michel, M. K., & Teti, L. O. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 73–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coutinho, J., Ribeiro, E., Ferreirinha, R., & Dias, P. (2010). The Portuguese version of the Dificulties in emotion regulation scale and its relationship with psychopathological symptoms. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry (São Paulo), 37(4), 152–158.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832010000400001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cunha, M., Galhardo, A., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2013). Child and adolescent mindfulness measure (CAMM): Study of the psychometric properties of the portuguese version. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 26(3), 459–468.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722013000300005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dan-Glauser, E. S., & Scherer, K. R. (2013). The difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS): Factor structure and consistency of a French translation. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 72(1), 5–11.  https://doi.org/10.1024/1421-0185/a000093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Desrosiers, A., Vine, V., Klemanski, D. H., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: Common and distinct mechanisms of action. Depression and Anxiety, 30(7), 654–661.  https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22124.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 43–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2014.05.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dragan, M. (2015). Difficulties in emotion regulation and problem drinking in young women: The mediating effect of metacognitions about alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 48, 30–35.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.04.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Finlay-Jones, A. L., Rees, C. S., & Kane, R. T. (2015). Self-compassion, emotion regulation and stress among Australian psychologists: Testing an emotion regulation model of self-compassion using structural equation modeling. PLoS One, 10(7), e0133481.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133481.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The experiences in close relationships-relationship structures questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological Assessment, 23, 615–625.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022898.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Giromini, L., Velotti, P., de Campora, G., Bonalume, L., & Cesare Zavattini, G. (2012). Cultural adaptation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale: Reliability and validity of an Italian version. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(9), 989–1007.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21876.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Giromini, L., Ales, F., de Campora, G., Zennaro, A., & Pignolo, C. (2017). Developing age and gender adjusted normative reference values for the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 39(4), 705–714.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-017-9611-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gomez-Simon, I., Penelo, E., & de la Osa, N. (2014). Factor structure and measurement invariance of the difficulties emotion regulation scale (DERS) in Spanish adolescents. Psicothema, 26(3), 401–408.  https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.324.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54.  https://doi.org/10.1023/b:joba.0000007455.08539.94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greco, L. A., Baer, R. A., & Smith, G. T. (2011). Assessing mindfulness in children and adolescents: Development and validation of the child and adolescent mindfulness measure (CAMM). Psychological Assessment, 23(3), 606–6014.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022819.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gregório, S., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2013). Mindful attention and awareness: Relationships with psychopathology and emotion regulation. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16(e79), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2013.79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gross, J. J. (2007). Emotion regulation in M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J., & Muñoz, R. F. (1995). Emotion regulation and mental health. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 2(2), 151–164.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.1995.tb00036.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Gullone, E., & Taffe, J. (2012). The emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ-CA): A psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24(2), 409–417.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025777.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hallion, L. S., Steinman, S. A., Tolin, D. F., & Diefenbach, G. J. (2018). Psychometric properties of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS) and its short forms in adults with emotional disorders. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(539).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00539.
  45. Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(1), 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2005.06.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Heinrich, M., Zagorscak, P., Eid, M., & Knaevelsrud, C. (2018). Giving G a meaning: An application of the bifactor-(S-1) approach to realize a more symptom-oriented modeling of the Beck Depression inventory–II. Assessment, Online advance publication, 1073191118803738,  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191118803738.
  47. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Joormann, J., & Stanton, C. H. (2016). Examining emotion regulation in depression: A review and future directions. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 86, 35–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2016.07.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kaufman, E. A., Xia, M., Fosco, G., Yaptangco, M., Skidmore, C. R., & Crowell, S. E. (2015). The difficulties in emotion regulation scale short form (DERS-SF): Validation and replication in adolescent and adult samples. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38(3), 443–455.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-015-9529-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kline, R. (2011). Principals and practice of structural equation modelling (3rd ed.). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  51. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  52. Marques, R., Monteiro, F., Canavarro, M. C., & Fonseca, A. (2018). The role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between attachment representations and depressive and anxiety symptoms in the postpartum period. Journal of Affective Disorders, 238, 39–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.013.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Matos, M. G., Gaspar, T., & Simões, C. (2012). Health-related quality of life in Portuguese children and adolescents. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 25(2), 230–237.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722012000200004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mauss, I. B., Bunge, S. A., & Gross, J. J. (2007). Automatic emotion regulation. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 146–167.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2007.00005.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McDermott, M. J., Tull, M. T., Gratz, K. L., Daughters, S. B., & Lejuez, C. W. (2009). The role of anxiety sensitivity and difficulties in emotion regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder among crack/cocaine dependent patients in residential substance abuse treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23(5), 591–599.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.01.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified approach. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. McLean, C. P., & Foa, E. B. (2017). Emotions and emotion regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder. Current Opinion in Psychology, 14, 72–77.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2016.10.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Medrano, L. A., & Trógolo, M. (2016). Construct validity of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale: Further evidence using confirmatory factor analytic approach. Abnormal and Behavioural Psychology, 2(117).  https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-0496.1000117.
  59. Miguel, F. K., Giromini, L., Colombarolli, M. S., Zuanazzi, A. C., & Zennaro, A. (2017). A brazilian investigation of the 36- and 16-item difficulties in emotion regulation scales. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 73(9), 1146–1159.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2019). Attachment orientations and emotion regulation. Current Opinion in Psychology, 25, 6–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.02.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mitsopoulou, E., Kafetsios, K., Karademas, E., Papastefanakis, E., & Simos, P. G. (2013). The Greek version of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale: Testing the factor structure, reliability and validity in an adult community sample. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 35(1), 123–131.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9321-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Moeller, S. J., Froböse, M. I., Konova, A. B., Misyrlis, M., Parvaz, M. A., Goldstein, R. Z., et al. (2014). Common and distinct neural correlates of inhibitory dysregulation: Stroop fMRI study of cocaine addiction and intermittent explosive disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 58, 55–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Moreira, H., Martins, T. C., Gouveia, M. J., & Canavarro, M. C. (2015). Assessing adult attachment across different contexts: Validation of the Portuguese version of the experiences in close relationships–relationship structures questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97(1), 22–30.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.950377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Neumann, A., van Lier, P. A. C., Gratz, K. L., & Koot, H. M. (2010). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation difficulties in adolescents using the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Assessment, 17(1), 138–149.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191109349579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Osborne, T. L., Michonski, J., Sayrs, J., Welch, S. S., & Anderson, L. K. (2017). Factor structure of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS) in adult outpatients receiving dialectical behavior therapy (DBT). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 39(2), 355–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-017-9586-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pais-Ribeiro, J., Silva, I., Ferreira, T., Martins, A., Meneses, R., & Baltar, M. (2007). Validation study of a Portuguese version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 12(2), 225–235.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13548500500524088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Phillips, L. H., Henry, J. D., Nouzova, E., Cooper, C., Radlak, B., & Summers, F. (2014). Difficulties with emotion regulation in multiple sclerosis: Links to executive function, mood, and quality of life. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36(8), 831–842.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2014.946891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Raes, F., Pommier, E., Neff, K., & Van Gucht, D. (2011). Construction and factorial validation of a short form of the self-compassion scale. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 18(3), 250–255.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ravens-Sieberer, U., Erhart, M., Rajmil, L., Herdman, M., Auquier, P., Bruil, J., et al. (2010). Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: A short measure for children and adolescents' well-being and health-related quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 19(10), 1487–1500.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9706-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Reise, S. P. (2012). The rediscovery of bifactor measurement models. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 47, 667–696.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2012.715555.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Reise, S. P., Moore, T. M., & Haviland, M. G. (2010). Bifactor models and rotations: Exploring the extent to which multidimensional data yield univocal scale scores. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 544–559.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2010.496477.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. Reise, S. P., Bonifay, W. E., & Haviland, M. G. (2013a). Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(2), 129–140.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2012.725437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Reise, S. P., Scheines, R., Widaman, K. F., & Haviland, M. G. (2013b). Multidimensionality and structural coefficient bias in structural equation modeling: A bifactor perspective. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 73(1), 5–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164412449831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodriguez, A., Reise, S. P., & Haviland, M. G. (2016a). Applying bifactor statistical indices in the evaluation of psychological measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(3), 223–237.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2015.1089249.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rodriguez, A., Reise, S. P., & Haviland, M. G. (2016b). Evaluating bifactor models: Calculating and interpreting statistical indices. Psychological Methods, 21(2), 137–150.  https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000045.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Roemer, L., Lee, J. K., Salters-Pedneault, K., Erisman, S. M., Orsillo, S. M., & Mennin, D. S. (2009). Mindfulness and emotion regulation difficulties in generalized anxiety disorder: Preliminary evidence for independent and overlapping contributions. Behavior Therapy, 40(2), 142–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2008.04.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Ruganci, R. N., & Gencoz, T. (2010). Psychometric properties of a Turkish version of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(4), 442–455.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Salsman, N. L., & Linehan, M. M. (2012). An investigation of the relationships among negative affect, difficulties in emotion regulation, and features of borderline personality disorder. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 34(2), 260–267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862-012-9275-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Salters-Pedneault, K., Roemer, L., Tull, M. T., Rucker, L., & Mennin, D. S. (2006). Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(4), 469–480.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9055-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schäfer, J. Ö., Naumann, E., Holmes, E. A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., & Samson, A. C. (2017). Emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 261–276.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0585-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sheppes, G., Suri, G., & Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation and psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 379–405.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112739.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, the misuse, and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach's alpha. Psychometrika, 74(1), 107–120.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-008-9101-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.Google Scholar
  84. Teixeira, A., Silva, E., Tavares, D., & Freire, T. (2015). Portuguese validation of the emotion regulation questionnaire for children and adolescents (ERQ-CA): Relations with self-esteem and life satisfaction. Child Indicators Research, 8(3), 605–621.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-014-9266-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ten Berge, J. M. F., & Sočan, G. (2004). The greatest lower bound to the reliability of a test and the hypothesis of unidimensionality. Psychometrika, 69(4), 613–625.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02289858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 25–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5834.1994.tb01276.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Thompson, R. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2009). The double-edged sword: Emotional regulation for children at risk. Development and Psychopathology, 8(1), 163–182.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579400007021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Trigo, M., Canudo, N., Branco, F., & Silva, D. (2010). Estudo das propriedades psicométricas da Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) na população portuguesa. Psychologica, 53, 353–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tull, M. T., Barrett, H. M., McMillan, E. S., & Roemer, L. (2007). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 303–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2006.10.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. van der Velde, J., Servaas, M. N., Goerlich, K. S., Bruggeman, R., Horton, P., Costafreda, S. G., et al. (2013). Neural correlates of alexithymia: A meta-analysis of emotion processing studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(8), 1774–1785.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Van Rheenen, T. E., Murray, G., & Rossell, S. L. (2015). Emotion regulation in bipolar disorder: Profile and utility in predicting trait mania and depression propensity. Psychiatry Research, 225(3), 425–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.12.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Vaz, F. (2009). Diferenciação e regulação emocional na idade adulta: Tradução e validação de dois instrumentos de avaliação para a população portuguesa [Emotional differentiation and regulation: translation and validation of two instruments to the Portuguese population]. In Master thesis, Universidade do Minho. Braga: Portugal.Google Scholar
  93. Weijters, B., & Baumgartner, H. (2012). Misresponse to reversed and negated items in surveys: A review. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(5), 737–747.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.11.0368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weissman, M. M., Orvaschel, H., & Padian, N. (1980). Children's symptom and social functioning self-report scales comparison of mothers' and children's reports. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168(12), 736–740.Google Scholar
  95. WHO (2006). WHO multicenter growth reference study group: WHO child growth standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-forlength, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  96. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Zinbarg, R. E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li, W. (2005). Cronbach’s, Revelle’s, and McDonald’s H: Their relations with each other and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Psychometrika, 70, 123–133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-003-0974-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Research in Neuropsychology and Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention, Faculty of Psychology and Educational SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations