Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Index among American and Greek Athletes
- 1 Downloads
To date, there has been no effort to uncover the extent of the universality of mental toughness (MT) in sport between any European country and the US via the Mental Toughness Index (MTI). The authors attempted to examine the invariance of MT between American and Greek athletes and further validate MTI. The MTI was completed by 99 Greek and 173 US athletes. Invariance testing was conducted using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis with increasingly restrictive models. The model-data fit in both samples was very good (CFI Greek = .995, RMSEA Greek = .046; CFI US = .998, RMSEA US = .032). The scalar invariance model was selected as the best fitting (CFA scalar = .930, RMSEA scalar = .078), but with a slightly different item intercept for one item (Item 4; <.5). The results imply that the meaning of the construct is equal in both cultures. Therefore, their MT scores can be directly compared.
KeywordsCross-cultural psychology Mental toughness Mentally tough Weighted least-square estimator with mean and variance adjustment Cultural sport psychology Etic
The authors would like to thank (a) Ms. Marietta Papadatou-Pastou from the Hellenic Psychological Society (www.elpse.com), who helped us in our effort to discover if there is an official psychological term for mental toughness in Greek. In fact, following her suggestion, the authors added the English term in parenthesis next to the Greek in the equivalent measure of MTI and (b) Mr. Noah Padgett from Baylor University for his assistance with data analysis.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
“All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.”
- Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York, NY: Henry Holt.Google Scholar
- Anantasagar, T., Abbott, K., Stamatis, A., & Papadakis, Z. (2018). Mental toughness in sport: Moving towards conceptual clarity and consensus. International Journal of Exercise Science, 2(10).Google Scholar
- Boomsma, A. (1987). The robustness of maximum likelihood estimation in structural equation models. In P.Google Scholar
- Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Clough, P., Earle, K., & Sewell, D. (2002). Mental toughness: The concept and its measurement. In I. M. Cockerill (Ed.), Solutions in sport psychology (pp. 32–43). Longon, England: Thompson.Google Scholar
- Cowden, R. G. (2018). Mental toughness inventory: Factorial validity and ethnic group measurement equivalence in competitive tennis. Current Psychology, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9798-6.
- Crust, L., Clough, P., Earle, K., Nabb, S., & Clough, A. (2012). From the sports field to the classroom: relationships between mental toughness, achievement, and progression in first-year university sports students. Paper presented at the Back to the future: Reflections and implications following the 2012 Olympic & Paralympic Games: BPS north east and north west of England conference Manchester, England. Cuttance & R. Ecob (Eds.), Structural modeling by example: Applications in educational, sociological, and behavioral research (pp. 160–188). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Eubank, M., Nesti, M., & Littlewood, M. (2017). A culturally informed approach to mental toughness development in high performance sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 48(3), 206–222 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=126302697&site=ehost-live&scope=site.Google Scholar
- Gucciardi, D. F., Gordon, S., & Dimmock, J. A. (2008). Towards an Understanding of Mental Toughness in Australian Football. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20(3), 261–281 Retrieved from http://ezproxy.baylor.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=33190065&site=ehost-live&scope=site.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gucciardi, D. F., Zhang, C.-Q., Ponnusamy, V., Si, G., & Stenling, A. (2016). Cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian athletes: a bayesian estimation approach. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38(2), 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York, NY: Guilford publications.Google Scholar
- Lin, Y., Mutz, J., Clough, P. J., & Papageorgiou, K. A. (2017). Mental toughness and individual differences in learning, educational and work performance, psychological well-being, and personality: A systematic review. Frontiers in psychology, 8(AUG). https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01345
- Pike, K. L. (1967). Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behaviour. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton & Co..Google Scholar
- R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
- Revelle, W. (2018). Using the psych package to generate and test structural models.Google Scholar
- Rom, S. A., Miller, L., & Peluso, J. (2009). Playing the game: Psychological factors in surviving cancer. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 11(1), 25–36 Retrieved from http://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&from=export&id=L354955434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Walker, T. B., Lennemann, L. M., McGregor, J. N., Mauzy, C., & Zupan, M. F. (2011). Physiological and psychological characteristics of successful combat controller trainees. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, 11(1), 39–47 Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21455909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Widaman, K. F., & Reise, S. P. (1997). Exploring the measurement invariance of psychological instruments: Applications in the substance use domain. The science of prevention: Methodological advances from alcohol and substance abuse research, 281–324.Google Scholar