Preliminary examination of the measurement invariance of the metacognition about health questionnaire: A study on Chinese and British nursing students
- 22 Downloads
Metacognition is a promising variable for understanding the development and maintenance of mental disorders. As a regulator and interpreter of cognition, it may be influenced by culture. The Metacognition about Health Questionnaire (MCQ-HA) is a tool especially designed for measuring health anxiety-related metacognitive beliefs. This study aimed to preliminarily test the measurement invariance of MCQ-HA between Chinese and British nursing students. With convenience sampling, 220 Chinese and 240 British nursing major students were assessed by the MCQ-HA. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis were performed to examine the factor structure and the measurement invariance between the two groups. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis provided support for the expected three-factor structure. A series of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the full configural invariance, full metric invariance, partial scalar, and partial strict invariance. The intercepts of nine items and the error variances of seven items were not equivalent. The implications of these findings on a cross-national comparison of health anxiety-related metacognitive beliefs were discussed.
KeywordsHealth anxiety Metacognitive beliefs Measurement invariance Cultural difference
The data from British nursing students was provided by Dr. Robin Bailey. We sincerely acknowledge his help in writing this paper.
This research was supported by the Science and Technology Innovation Plan of Hunan Province, China (grant no. 2017SK50127).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Institutional Review Board of the Third Xiangya Hospital and the University of Manchester’s ethnic committee with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Third Xiangya Hospital and the University of Manchester’s ethnic committee.
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare that he/she has no conflict of interest.
- Brown, T. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research, Second Edition. The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Dai, L., Bailey, R., & Deng, Y. (2018). The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Metacognitions about Health Questionnaire in college students. Quality of Life Research, 27(4), 1099–1108.Google Scholar
- Ghafoor, H., Ahmad, R. A., Nordbeck, P., Ritter, O., Pauli, P., & Schulz, S. M. (2019). A cross-cultural comparison of the roles of emotional intelligence, metacognition, and negative coping for health-related quality of life in German versus Pakistani patients with chronic heart failure. British Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Liu, Y. Z., & Zou, J. F. (2008). The spirit of worldliness and worrying mentality of Confucianism. Philosophy and Culture, 35(12), 151–166.Google Scholar
- Melli, G., Bailey, R., Carraresi, C., & Poli, A. (2018). Metacognitive beliefs as a predictor of health anxiety in a self-reporting Italian clinical sample. Clinical Psychology &. Psychotherapy, 25(2), 263–271.Google Scholar
- Nordahl, H., Hjemdal, O., Hagen, R., Nordahl, H. M., & Wells, A. (2019). What lies beneath trait-anxiety? Testing the self-regulatory executive function model of vulnerability. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 122. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00122.
- Steenkamp, J. B., & Baumgartner, H. (1998). Assessing measurement invariance in cross-national consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 19(1), 3327–3333.Google Scholar
- Sunderland, M., Newby, J. M., & Andrews, G. (2013). Health anxiety in Australia: prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service use. British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(1), 56–61.Google Scholar
- Tosun, A., & Irak, M. (2008). Adaptation, validity, and reliability of the metacognition questionnaire-30 for the Turkish population, and its relationship to anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 19(1).Google Scholar
- Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Wen-chao, F. A. N., Zhong-fang, F. U., Wei, X., Ya-wen, Z. H. U., Meng, Y. U., & Jian-ping, W. (2017). Revision of the meta-cognitions questionnaire in Chinese college students. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25(3), 448–452.Google Scholar
- Zhang, Q. (2015). The evolution of ancient Chinese thought. In An introduction to Chinese history and culture. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar